INDONESIA DEFENCE BLOG ADALAH BLOG TENTANG INFO ALUTSISTA TERKINI DI DUNIA

Thursday, September 29, 2011

Komisi I DPR Tetap Pergi ke Spanyol & Korsel untuk RUU Alutsista




Jakarta - Komisi I DPR ternyata tetap pergi ke Spanyol dan Korea Selatan. Tujuannya pun diganti, semula studi banding RUU Intelijen kini menjadi studi banding RUU Alat Utama Sistem Persenjataan (Alutsista). 

"Jadi yang kunjungan untuk RUU Intelijen tidak ada. Tetapi untuk Alutsista tetap berangkat," kata Wakil Ketua Komisi I DPR TB Hasanuddin saat dihubungi detikcom, Kamis (29/9/2011).

Hasanuddin yang juga politikus PDIP ini menerangkan, tim Komisi I akan mulai berangkat esok Jumat (30/9). "Besok tetap berangkat," tuturnya.

Pernyataan Hasanuddin ini berbeda dengan apa yang disampaikan anggota Komisi I DPR Max Sopacua. Dia sebelumnya menyebut sepenuhnya keberangkatan dibatalkan, baik untuk RUU Intelijen maupun RUU Alutsista.

"Itu kan tidak urgent juga toh, ya akhirnya kita batalkan. Jadi tidak ada kunjungan ke Spanyol dan Korsel," imbuh Wakil Ketua Umum Partai Demokrat itu di DPR.

detik

Ketua Komisi I DPR: Kita Masih Perlu Kunjungan ke Korsel







Jakarta - Spanyol dan Korea Selatan semula menjadi target studi banding RUU Intelijen Komisi I DPR. Berhubung RUU tersebut sudah hampir selesai, studi banding dibatalkan. Namun Korsel masih menjadi target studi banding komisi pertahanan dan luar negeri ini.

"Kalau untuk kunjungan terkait RUU Intelijen yaitu ke Spanyol dan Korea Selatan memang dibatalkan karena sudah hampir selesai dan sudah mau diparipurnakan. Tetapi kita juga sedang membahas terkait RUU Industri Strategis Pertahanan. Nah itu juga direncanakan, kita perlu kunjungan ke Korea Selatan," kata Ketua Komisi I DPR, Mahfudz Siddik di Gedung DPR, Senayan, Jakarta, Kamis (29/9/2011).

Awalnya, Komisi I DPR berencana untuk melakukan kunjungan ke Korea Selatan untuk studi banding dua RUU. Namun karena RUU Intelijen sudah hampir selesai, maka dibatalkan.

"Kalau yang RUU Industri Strategis Pertahanan itu ada dijadwalkan ke sana, tetapi hanya ke Korea Selatan. Tapi itu masih nanti, belum tahu kapan," sambung Mahfudz.

RUU Industri Strategis Pertahanan saat ini masih dibahas bersama dengan Badan Legislatif. Karena itu Komisi I DPR masih belum tahu kapan akan melakukan studi banding. "Jadi nggak-nya kita belum tahu karena baru direncanakan," ucap politisiP.S ini.

Pernyataan Mahfudz berbeda dengan Wakil Ketua Komisi I TB Hassanudin. Menurutnya, kunjungan untuk RUU Intelijen tidak ada, tetapi untuk Alutsista tetap berangkat. Tim Komisi I DPR akan mulai berangkat esok Jumat (30/9).

Sementara itu anggota Komisi I DPR Max Sopacu menyebut, sepenuhnya keberangkatan dibatalkan, baik untuk RUU Intelijen maupun RUU Alutsista. "Itu kan tidak urgent juga toh, ya akhirnya kita batalkan. Jadi tidak ada kunjungan ke Spanyol dan Korsel," ucap Wakil Ketua Umum Partai Demokrat itu di DPR.


detik

Kasad Terima Dubes Rusia



Kamis, 29 September 2011 - 16:44 WIB
Kasad Terima Dubes Rusia
H. E. Mr. A. Ivanov, Duta Besar Rusia Untuk Indonesia, didampingi Atase Pertahanan Colonel Vladimir Afanasenkov, melakukan kunjungan kehormatan yang diterima Kepala Staf Angkatan Darat (Kasad), Jenderal TNI Pramono Edhie Wibowo, di Markas Besar TNI Angkatan Darat, Jl. Veteran No. 5 Jakarta Pusat, Kamis (29/9/2011). Kunjungan tersebut dalam rangka meningkatkan hubungan antara kedua pemerintahan, khususnya di bidang industri pertahanan, yang dihadiri oleh para pejabat teras TNI Angkatan Darat




sumber : POSKOTA

Indonesia Akan Punya Satu Lagi Pabrik Pesawat



"Sebelumnya saya katakan, kenapa tidak dibangun di Bandung?" ujar Gubernur Jawa Timur.

KAMIS, 29 SEPTEMBER 2011, 19:51 WIB
Syahid Latif
Perakitan pesawat terbang di PTDI (VIVAnews/Tri Saputro)

VIVAnews - Meski Indonesia sudah memiliki PT Dirgantara Indonesia yang merupakan perusahaan pembuat pesawat di tanah air, ternyata pemerintah masih berambisi membangun pabrik serupa di Jawa Timur.
Hal itu diketahui dari permintaan Menteri Perhubungan Freddy Numberi kepada pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Timur untuk segera menyiapkan lahan 1.000 hektar yang akan diperuntukan bagi pembangunan pabrik pesawat terbang.

"Sebelumnya saya katakan, kenapa tidak dibangun di Bandung?" ujar Gubernur Jawa Timur Soekarwo dalam diskusi Forum Rektor Perguruan Tinggi Negeri (PTN) se-Jatim di kampus ITS, Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Kamis, 29 September 2011.

Soekarwo mengaku telah berbicara dengan sejumlah kepala daerah perihal rencana pembangunan pabrik pesawat tersebut. "Mereka umumnya siap merealisasikan rencana itu," katanya.

Pemilihan Jatim sebagai lokasi pembangunan pabrik pesawat, ujar Soekarwo, dikarenakan provinsi ini dianggap memiliki pertumbuhan ekonomi yang stabil. Bahkan tingkat pertumbuhan ekonomi Surabaya cenderung meningkat melebihi DKI Jakarta.

Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Timur berharap jika proyek pembangunan pabrik pesawat tersebut itu terwujud, pelayanan transportasi udara di tanah air akan mengalami peningkatan.

Lebih jauh, Soekarwo berharap keberadaan pabrik pesawat itu akan membantu percepatan pertumbuhan perekonomian di Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI) (Laporan : Tudji Martudji | Surabaya) (adi)
• VIVAnews

Indonesia minta PBB lakukan reformasi

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Menteri Luar Negeri Marty Natalegawa. (FOTO ANTARA/Prasetyo Utomo)



PBB, New York (ANTARA News) - Indonesia berharap Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB), yang saat ini beranggotakan 193 negara, memperkuat peran sentralnya dalam mendorong kerjasama negara di dunia dengan melakukan reformasi.

"Guna mengatasi tantangan baru dan yang akan muncul serta mengetahui kesempatan baru, reformasi PPBB merupakan kunci," kata Menteri Luar Negeri Marty Natalegawa ketika menyampaikan pernyataan Indonesia dalam Sidang ke-66 Majelis Umum PBB di Markas Besar PBB, New York, Senin.

Reformasi PBB, kata Marty, merupakan satu-satunya jalan untuk membuat PBB tetap relevan dan memastikan kerjasama dunia dalam mengatasi tantangan global.

Ia mengingatkan bahwa dunia terus dihadapkan pada berbagai tantangan rumit, mulai dari ancaman senjata nuklir, perompakan, terorisme, krisis keuangan dan ekonomi hingga keadaan terburuk serta paling mendasar, yang ditemui di berbagai penjuru dunia, yaitu kemiskinan dan kelaparan sangat parah.

Dunia juga menghadapi ancaman kerusakan lingkungan hidup dan bencana alam, masalah ketahanan pangan dan energi, intoleransi, diskriminasi serta penguasa lalim, yang menindas keinginan demokrasi dan penghormatan terhadap hak asasi manusia.

Mengingat tidak dapat dipecahkan secara nasional, tantangan itu seharusnya dapat memotivasi negara untuk mendorong kemitraan dan kerjasama di antara mereka, kata Marty.

"Pertama, kita perlu memperkuat multilateralisme untuk mengatasi tantangan global. Itu berarti peran sentral PBB," katanya mengingatkan.

Melalui reformasi, kata Marty, harus dipastikan bahwa PBB dan proses di badan dunia itu dalam pengambilan keputusan menjadi lebih efektif, transparan dan melibatkan semua pihak.

Indonesia menginginkan seluruh masalah kunci reformasi PBB dibahas sebagai bagian integrasl dari paket terpadu, termasuk menyangkut Dewan Keamanan.

"Dewan Keamanan harus dapat mencerminkan keadaan dunia saat ini dengan lebih baik. Dewan Keamanan harus lebih mewakili, transparan dan efektif," kata Marty.

Selain secara multilateral, Indonesia juga mengingatkan bahwa kerjasama dan kemitraan antara PBB dengan lembaga kawasan merupakan kunci lain untuk mengatasi tantangan global saat ini.

Dalam pidatonya, Marty juga menyentuh beberapa soal lain, termasuk yang mencuat dalam rangkaian pertemuan tingkat tinggi di Sidang Umum sejak Senin (19/9) lalu, yaitu permohonan Palestina menjadi negara anggota penuh PBB.

"Dalam mendorong perdamaian dan Vembangungan di kawasan Timur Tengah, langkah pertama dan yang utama harus dilakukan adalah mengkoreksi ketidakadilan sejarah, yang dibiarkan berlangsung lama terhadap rakyat Palestina," kata Marty.

Marty menegaskan dukungan Indonesia terhadap hak rakyat Palestina untuk hidup secara bebas, damai, adil dan bermartabat di tanah air mereka sendiri telah berlangsung lama dan tidak akan pernah berhenti.

"Karena itu, Indonesia sangat mendukung keinginan Palestina menjadi negara anggota penuh PBB. Itu sejalan dengan visi solusi dua negara, yaitu penyelesaian secara damai, adil dan terpadu di Timur Tengah," katanya.

Selain menyampaikan pernyataan Indonesia, pada Senin, Marty juga melakukan serangkaian pertemuan dwipihak di sela-sela sidang Majelis Umum, termasuk dengan Wakil Menteri Luar Negeri Amerika Serikat William J Burns dan Sekretaris Jenderal Liga Arab Nabil El Araby.

Marty mengungkapkan, dalam pertemuandngan Burns, keduanya antara lain membahas hubungan dwipihak, persiapan kunjungan Presiden Barack Obama ke Bali pada November nanti, serta persiapan pelaksanaan temu puncak Asia Timur.

Sementara itu, dengan Nabil El Araby, Marty membahas keinginan Indonesia meminta status peninjau di Liga Arab.

"Tentu, Indonesia tidak bisa menjadi anggota, tapi melihat kesinambungan penanganan masalah dari Liga Arab ke Organisasi Kerjasama Islam, ke Gerakan Nonblok dan masalah multlateral lain, Indonesia merasa perlu --sebagaimana halnya sekarang juga sedang merintis status peninjau di Uni Afrika-- minta status peninjau di Liga Arab," katanya.



ANTARA

Typhoon class Ballistic missile submarine




Typhoon class submarine
The Typhoon class submarines are the largest undersea vessels ever built

Entered service1981
Crew150-175 men
Diving depth (operational)400 m
Sea endurance120 days
Dimensions and displacement
Length170 - 172 m
Beam23 - 23.3 m
Draught11 - 11.5 m
Surfaced displacement23 200 - 24 500 tons
Submerged displacement33 800 - 48 000 tons
Propulsion and speed
Surfaced speed12 - 16 knots
Submerged speed25 - 27 knots
Nuclear reactors2 x 190 MW
Steam turbines2 x 37.3 MW
Armament
Missiles20 x SS-N-20 'Sturgeon' SLBMs
Torpedoes2 x 650-mm and 4 x 533-mm torpedo tubes
   The Typhoon class (Project 941 Akula) boats are the largest undersea vessels ever built, and are based on a double hull design that comprises two separate pressure hulls joined by a single outer covering to give increased protection against ASW weapons.
   The class was built specifically for operations with the Soviet Northern Fleet in the Arctic ice pack. The reinforced sail, advanced stern fin with horizontal hydroplane fitted aft of the screws and retractable bow hydroplanes allow the submarine to break easily through spots of thin ice within the Arctic ice shelf.
   The first unit was laid down in 1977 at Severodvinsk and commissioned in 1980, achieving operational status in 1981. To arm the Typhoon, design of a fifth-generation SLBM, the R-39 Taifun (SS-N-20 Sturgeon), began in 1973. Six vessels were constructed between 1981-89, entering service to form part of the 1st Flotilla of Atomic Submarines, within the Western Theatre of the Northern Fleet, and based at Nyerpicha. Construction of a seventh vessel was not completed.
   The R-39 allowed the submarine to fire the weapon from within the Arctic Circle and still hit a target anywhere within the continental US. The Typhoons, were originally to be retrofitted with the improved R-39M (SS-N-28) missiles.
   _wN vessels were decommissioned in 1997, and in 2002 only two remained in service although it has been reported that three of the class will remain active in order to test the R-39M or the new_BTlava SLBM, contravening the Co-operative Threat Reduction Program. The Typhoon class will be
 eventually replaced with the Borei class submarines

Typhoon class submarineTyphoon class submarineTyphoon class submarineTyphoon class submarine

No plans to retire Typhoon class subs soon - Russian military


Typhoon class submarine
The Typhoon class submarines are the largest undersea vessels ever built






05:20 30/09/2011
MOSCOW, September 30 (RIA Novosti)
A high-ranking source in the Russian Defense Ministry has denied rumors of a planned scrapping of Typhoon class strategic submarines in the near future.
Several media sources reported recently that the Russian military had decided to scrap the world's largest nuclear-powered subs by 2014.
"The Defense Ministry has not made such a decision. The submarines remain in service with the Navy," the official told RIA Novosti on Thursday.
The Typhoon class submarines entered service with the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. Three of the six vessels built are still in use.
The Dmitry Donskoy submarine has been modernized as a test platform for Russia's new Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile and will remain in this capacity for a long time, the source said.
Two reserve vessels, the Arkhangelsk and the Severstal, are awaiting overhaul at a naval base in Severodvinsk in northern Russia.
"The problem is that they do not have the arsenal of R-39 [SS-N-20 Sturgeon] submarine-launched ballistic missiles anymore, as the production of these missiles in Ukraine stopped in 1991," the source said.
The Typhoon class subs have a maximum displacement of 33,800 tons and were built to carry 20 SS-N-20 SLBMs, all of which have been retired.
Nevertheless, these subs will most likely be modernized to carry new-generation sea-based cruise missiles to match the U.S. Ohio-class submarines.
The Typhoons will be replaced in the future with the new Borey class strategic submarines, which will be equipped with Bulava missiles.

RIA NOVOSTI

Russia tests new ballistic missile

Sineva submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). Archive

Russia carried out on Thursday a successful test of a new sea-based intercontinental ballistic missile, the Defense Ministry said.
The Liner missile was launched from the Tula (Delta IV class) strategic submarine in the Barents Sea targeting the Kura test grounds on the Kamchatka peninsula.
"The missile's warheads hit the designated area on schedule," spokesman Col. Igor Konashenkov said.
The Liner is an advanced version of the solid-propellant Sineva submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) which is currently in service with the Russian Navy. It has a longer range and enhanced missile defense penetration capability.
According to the developer of the missile, the State Missile Center, the Liner can carry up to four medium-yield warheads or up to 12 small-yield warheads, or their mixture.
In comparison, Russia's much-coveted Bulava SLBM can carry only six small-yield warheads.

SUMBER : RIA NOVOSTI

Menhan Vahidi: Iran Kontrol Penuh Teluk Persia!




Menteri Pertahanan Republik Islam Iran mengatakan Angkatan Laut Iran memiliki kontrol penuh atas Teluk Persia demi menjaga stabilitas kawasan tersebut.
Menanggapi pertanyaan tentang usulan AS mengenai dibangunnya jalur khusus dengan melibatkan  Angkatan Laut AS dan Iran, Vahidi mengatakan tidak ada kebutuhan semacam itu.
Sebelumnya, pada bulan September sejumlah media massa Barat melaporkan bahwa AS menginginkan dibuatnya jalur khusus kolektif untuk mencegah kemungkinan konfrontasi antara kekuatan kedua negara.
Terkait rencana untuk melengkapi angkatan laut negara itu dengan rudal laut Qader, Vahidi mengungkapkan bahwa rudal ini memiliki kemampuan khusus termasuk kemampuan menembak sasaran frigat, kapal perang serta target di pesisir.
Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, Iran berhasil menorehkan prestasi besar di sektor pertahanan dan mencapai swasembada dalam memproduksi peralatan militer penting dan sistem pertahanan.
Republik Islam Iran berulang kali meyakinkan bahwa kekuatan militernya tidak akan menimbulkan ancaman bagi negara-negara lain, karena negara ini mengadopsi sistem pertahanan defensif.

Iran berencana untuk mengirimkan armada kapal perang 16 nya ke Teluk Aden sebagai bagian dari upaya untuk memberikan keamanan bagi kapal tanker minyaknya  di daerah yang dipenuhi pembajakan itu.(IRIB/PH)

Kunjungan Komisi I DPR ke Spanyol dan Korsel Dibatalkan



Hery Winarno - detikNews


Jakarta - Rencana Komisi I DPR untuk melawat ke Spanyol dan Korea Selatan akhirnya dibatalkan. Hal ini dikarenakan komisi yang membidangi urusan luar negeri itu sudah tidak lagi memiliki kepentingan ke dua negara itu.

"Rencana itu sudah dibatalkan tadi. Karena kita sudah tidak punya kepentingan ke sana," ujar anggota Komisi I DPR, Max Sopacua, saat dihubungi detikcom, Kamis (29/9/2011).

Menurut Max, Komisi I memang pernah merencanakan kunjungan ke dua negara itu. Tujuan kunjungan ke dua negara itu untuk studi banding terkait RUU Intelijen.

"Itu rencana awal dulu, tetapi kan RUU Intelijen sudah hampir rampung jadi kunjungan itu kita batalkan karena sudah tidak perlu lagi," terangnya.

Selain dalam rangka studi banding terkait RUU Intelijen, kunjungan ke Spanyol dan Korsel awalnya ingin melihat persenjataan di dua negara itu. Namun hal itu dirasa tidak terlalu mendesak.

"Itukan tidak urgent juga toh, ya akhirnya kita batalkan. Jadi tidak ada kunjungan ke Spanyol dan Korsel," imbuh Wakil Ketua Umum Partai Demokrat itu.

detik

Komisi I DPR ke Spanyol dan Korsel

T-50 Golden Eagle terbang dalam formasi. (Foto: KAI)
JAKARTA (Pos Kota) – Komisi I DPR RI berencana akan melakukan studi banding ke Spanyol dan Korea Selatan, untuk membahas Rancangan Undang-Undang (RUU) Industri Strategis Alat Utama Sistem Persenjataan (Insra Alutsista).
“Kita pergi dalam rangka RUU Instra Alutsita, ‘ terang Wakil Ketua Komisi I DPR, T.B. Hasanudin di gedung DPR/MPR RI, Jakarta, Kamis (29/9).
Menurut Hasanudin, pergi ke Spanyol karena Komisi I ingin melihat bagaimana industri kapal tempur buatan mereka. Sedang ke Korea Selatan untuk mengetahui industri pembuatan senjata, pesawat T 50 dan kapal selam.
“Kita kan mau membuat industri startegis alutsita dalam negeri, tapi kita tidak bisa bekerja sendirian. Kita harus bisa kerja sama, kapan agendanya kan kita break down, dan lain-lain,” pungkasnya
sumber :poskota

Iraq makes first payment for 18 F-16s


Iraq makes first payment for 18 F-16s

The Iraqi government has transferred its first payment for 18 F-16C Fighting Falcons, bringing Iraq closer to independently securing its airspace, Pentagon Press Secretary George Little said Sept 27.
"These aircraft will help provide air sovereignty for Iraq to protect its own territory and deter or counter regional threats," Little said.
The fighter aircraft, he said, "are also a symbol of the commitment to a long-term strategic partnership between the United States and Iraq."
The fighters are the block 50/52 variant of the aircraft -- the current production version of the F-16 Fighting Falcon. The sale is valued at about $3 billion, Little said.
The United States conducts foreign military sales with Iraq, he added, "and fully supports Iraq's efforts to purchase military equipment in line with its domestic spending priorities and in accordance with its budget laws and procedures."
Such foreign military sales will be a cornerstone of future cooperation and support the development of a long-term cooperative security relationship with Iraq, Little said.
"Foreign military sales around the world, such as this purchase of F-16 aircraft," the press secretary said, "strengthen our diplomatic and military relationships with our allies and supports American industry and jobs at home."

DEFENCE TALK

Indonesia Akan Bangun Simulator Sukhoi



29 September 2011, Bogor (ANTARA): Indonesia akan segera membangun simulator pesawat jet tempur Sukhoi untuk menempa keterampilan dan kemampuan para pilot pesawat tempur tersebut secara intensif, efektif dan efisien.

Kepala Staf Angkatan Udara Marsekal TNI Imam Sufaat kepada ANTARA usai peresmian simulator Super Puma NAS 332 di Bogor, Kamis mengatakan, "penjajakannya sudah lama dan akan mulai dimantapkan pada 2012,".

Ia menambahkan, pembangunan simulator itu akan diusahakan melibatkan PT Dirgantara Indonesia dengan beberapa perusahaan mancanegara.

"Perusahaan mancanegara kemungkinan bisa dari Rusia, China atau Kanada. Ini semua kita jajaki," kata Kasau.

Ia menegaskan, dengan adanya simulator tersebut maka keahlian dan kemampuan para pilot pesawat jet tempur Sukhoi TNI Angkatan Udara dapat terus diasah dan ditingkatkan dengan efektif dan efisien.

"Bayangkan jika kita berlatih dengan pesawat yang sesungguhnya. Berapa biaya yang harus dikeluarkan...bisa ratusan juta rupiah. Di Rusia pun pesawat Sukhoi tidak dipakai setiap hari," tutur Kasau.

Ia menambahkan, pembangunan simulator Sukhoi akan ditempatkan di Skuadron Udara 11 Pangkalan Udara Sultan Hassanuddin, Makassar.

"Ini untuk memudahkan para penerbang menjangkau simulator. Tidak seperti para penerbang Hawk yang berada di Pontianak yang harus ke Pekanbaru karena simulatornya di sana. Itu tidak efektif dan efisien. Jadi kita upayakan simulator dibangun tidak jauh dari pangkalan pesawat atau heli dimaksud," ujar Imam.

Indonesia selama ini mengirimkan penerbang Sukhoinya ke Rusia selaku produsen dan pengguna, atau China yang telah memiliki pabrik dan simulator Sukhoi.

Indonesia telah memiliki Sukhoi sejak 2003 dan kini telah memiliki 10 unit pesawat Sukhoi dengan berbagai jenis. Kini Indonesia tengah menjajaki pembelian enam unit lagi pesawat sejenis untuk memperkuat skuadron tempurnya.

Sumber: ANTARA News

Simulator NAS-332 Dioperasikan, Awak Penerbang Makin Mahir




29 September 2011, Bogor (ANTARA News): Indonesia salah satu negara pertama Asia Tenggara yang mengoperasikan helikopter buatan Aerospatiale, Perancis, dari seri Puma. Bahkan kita juga membuat mereka dalam lisensi. Kini efektivitas dan efisiensi menuju peningkatan kemahiran pilot dan navigatornya semakin baik karena simulator helikopter sedang itu sudah ada.

Kepala Staf TNI-AU, Marsekal TNI Imam Sufaat, meresmikan pemakaian simulator seri Super Puma (NAS-332) di dalam Gedung Simulator di Pangkalan Udara Utama TNI-AU Atang Sandjaja, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat, Kamis.

"Simulator NAS-332 Super Puma ini merupakan yang pertama dimiliki TNI-AU. Ini sangat berguna, selain menghemat biaya latihan juga untuk melatih emerjensi, dan latihan terbang sesuai dengan silabus yang diajarkan," kata Sufaat.

Situasi dan kondisi yang ditampilkan layar monitor setara pandangan 3 dimensi dan efek-efek sejati bisa dihadirkan. Dengan begitu, awak pesawat terbang itu bisa berada dalam keadaan yang sangat mendekati kenyataannya sejatinya.

Ada keistimewaan dari simulator buatan Perancis yang dibeli Indonesia itu. Simulasi enam situasi dan kondisi penerbangan dengan berbagai variannya --terutama cuaca buruk dan pendaratan darurat di laut ataupun darat-- bisa dilakukan.

TNI AU Resmi Punya Simulator Heli Super Puma

TNI Angkatan Udara resmi memiliki simulator helikopter Super Puma NAS 332 untuk mendukung keterampilan dan kemampuan para penerbang helikopter matra udara.

Peresmian dilakukan di Wing 4 Pangkalan Udara Atang Sendjaya oleh Kepala Staf Angkatan Udara Marsekal TNI Imam Sufaat di Bogor, Kamis.

Pembangunan simulator helikopter Super Puma itu dilakukan oleh empat pihak yakni PT Dirgantara Indonesia (perakitan, desain, instrumen avionik), DSL, Inggris (pengerjaan sistem komputer avionik, visual sistem), Belanda ("motion system") dan Amerika Serikat (radar).

Imam mengatakan, setelah lima tahun pembangunan simulator tersebut sangat bermanfaat untuk membina kemampuan_d.n keterampilan para penerbang helikopter. "Sangat efektif dane.isien termasuk untuk mengantisipasi situasi 'emergency'," katanya.

Ia mengatakan, penerbang yang sudah lama tidak terbang juga bisa menggunakan simulator untuk menempa kembali kemampuannya. Begitu juga, katanya, untuk penerbang baru, bisa menabung jam terbang sebelum menggunakan pesawat atau helikopter yang sesungguhnya.

"Simulator NAS-332 Super Puma ini merupakan yang pertama dimiliki TNI AU," kata Imam. Ia mengatakan, keberadaan Simulator NAS-332 Super Puma merupakan salah satu terobosan strategis dalam meningkatkan keahlian personel TNI AU khususnya helikopter.

Usai meresmikan simulator, Kasau didampingi Danlanud Marsekal Pertama TNI Tabri Santoso, pilot Danwing 4 Kolonel Pnb Eding menjajal simulator tersebut selama 20 menit.

Sumber: ANTARA New/Republika

Eurofighter Typhoon


Eurofighter Typhoon
Gray sleek jet fighter overflying clouds
A Eurofighter Typhoon of the Austrian Air Force


The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wingmultirole combat aircraft, designed and built by a consortium of three companies: EADSAlenia Aeronautica and BAE Systems; working through a holding company, Eurofighter GmbH, which was formed in 1986. The project is managed by the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency, which acts as the prime customer.[5]
The series production of the Eurofighter Typhoon is underway, and the aircraft is being procured under separate contracts, named "tranches", each for aircraft with generally improved capabilities. The aircraft has entered service with the German Luftwaffe, the British Royal Air Force, the Italian Air Force, the Spanish Air Force, the Austrian Air Force and the Royal Saudi Air Force.

Origins

Official Eurofighter logo
The UK had identified a requirement for a new fighter as early as 1971. A specification, AST 403, issued by the Air Staff in 1972, resulted in a conventional "tailed" design known as P.96, which was presented in the late 1970s. While the design would have met the Air Staff's requirements, the UK air industry had reservations as it appeared to be very similar to the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, which was then well advanced in its development. The design had little potential for future growth, and when it entered production it would secure few exports in a market in which the Hornet would be well established.[6] However, the simultaneous West German requirement for a new fighter had led by 1979 to the development of the TKF-90 concept.[7][8] This was a cranked delta wing design with forward canard controls and artificial stability. Although the British Aerospace designers rejected some of its advanced features such as vectoring engine nozzles and vented trailing-edge controls, they agreed with the overall configuration.
In 1979, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) and British Aerospace (BAe) presented a formal proposal to their respective governments for the ECF, the European Collaborative Fighter[9]or European Combat Fighter.[8] In October 1979 Dassault joined the ECF team for a tri-national study, which became known as the European Combat Aircraft.[9] It was at this stage of development that the Eurofighter name was first attached to the aircraft.[10] The development of different national prototypes continued. France produced the ACX. The UK produced two designs; the P.106[N 1]was a single-engined "lightweight" fighter, superficially resembling the JAS 39 Gripen, the P.110 was a twin-engined fighter. The P.106 concept was rejected by the RAF, on the grounds that it had "half the effectiveness of the two-engined aircraft at two thirds of the cost".[6] West Germany continued to refine the TFK-90 concept.[8] The ECA project collapsed in 1981 for several reasons including differing requirements, Dassault's insistence on "design leadership" and the British preference for a new version of the RB199 to power the aircraft versus the French preference for the new Snecma M88.[10]
As a result the Panavia partners (MBB, BAe and Aeritalia) launched the Agile Combat Aircraft (ACA) programme in April 1982.[12] The ACA was very similar to the BAe P.110, having a cranked delta wing, canards and a twin tail. One major external difference was the replacement of the side mounted engine intakes with a chin intake. The ACA was to be powered by a modified version of the RB199. The German and Italian governments withdrew funding, and the UK Ministry of Defence agreed to fund 50% of the cost with the remaining 50% to be provided by industry. MBB and Aeritalia signed up with the aim of producing two aircraft, one at Warton and one by MBB. In May 1983 BAe announced a contract with the MoD for the development and production of an ACA demonstrator, the Experimental Aircraft Programme.[12][13]
In 1983 the Germany, France, UK, Italy and Spain launched the Future European Fighter Aircraft (FEFA) programme. The aircraft was to have short take off and landing (STOL) and beyond visual range (BVR) capabilities. In 1984 France reiterated its requirement for a carrier-capable version and demanded a leading role. The West Germany, UK and Italy opted out and established a new EFA programme.[8] In Turin on 2 August 1985, West Germany, UK and Italy agreed to go ahead with the Eurofighter; and confirmed that France, along with Spain, had chosen not to proceed as a member of the project.[14] Despite pressure from France, Spain rejoined the Eurofighter project in early September 1985.[15] France officially withdrew from the project to pursue its own ACX project, which was to become the Dassault Rafale.
Close up view of an RAF Typhoon F2, showing the deflected canard control surface immediately below the pilot
By 1986, the cost of the programme had reached £180 million.[16] When the EAP programme had started, the cost was supposed to be equally shared by both government and industry, but the West German and Italian government wavered on the agreement and the three main industrial partners had to provide £100 million to keep the programme from ending. In April 1986 the BAe EAP was rolled out at BAe Warton, by this time also partially funded by MBB, BAe and Aeritalia.[16] The EAP first flew on 6 August 1986.[17] The Eurofighter bears a strong resemblance to the EAP. Design work continued over the next five years using data from the EAP. Initial requirements were: UK: 250 aircraft, Germany: 250, Italy: 165 and Spain: 100. The share of the production work was divided among the countries in proportion to their projected procurement – DASA (33%), British Aerospace (33%), Aeritalia (21%), and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) (13%).
The Munich based Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH was established in 1986 to manage development of the project[18] and EuroJet Turbo GmbH, the alliance of Rolls-RoyceMTU Aero Engines, FiatAvio (now Avio) and ITP for development of the EJ200. The aircraft was known as Eurofighter EFA from the late 1980s until it was renamed EF 2000 in 1992.[19]
By 1990, the selection of the aircraft's radar had become a major stumbling block. The UK, Italy and Spain supported the Ferranti Defence Systems-led ECR-90, while Germany preferred the APG-65 based MSD2000 (a collaboration between HughesAEG and GEC-Marconi). An agreement was reached after UK Defence Secretary Tom King assured his West German counterpart Gerhard Stoltenberg that the Bzitish government would approve the project and allow GEC to acquire Ferranti Defence Systems from its troubled parent. GEC thuswthdrew its support for the MSD2000.[20]


Testing

The maiden flight of the Eurofighter prototype took place in Bavaria on 27 March 1994, flown by DASA Chief Test Pilot Peter Weger.[1] On 9 December 2004, Eurofighter Typhoon IPA4 began three months of Cold Environmental Trials (CET) at the Vidsel Air Base in Sweden, the purpose of which was to verify the operational behaviour of the aircraft and its systems in temperatures between −25 and 31 °C.[21] The maiden flight of Instrumented Production Aircraft 7 (IPA7), the first fully equipped Tranche 2 aircraft, took place from EADS' Manchingairfield on 16 January 2008.[22]
In May 2007, Eurofighter Development Aircraft 5 made the first flight with the CAESAR demonstrator system,[23] a development of the Euroradar CAPTOR incorporating Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology. The production version of the CAPTOR-E radar was being proposed as part of Tranche 3 of the Typhoon from 2012. Tranche 2 aircraft use the non AESA, mechanically scanned Captor-M which incorporates weight and space provisions for possible upgrade to CAESAR (AESA) standard in the future.[24] The Italian Air Force doubted that the AESA radar would be ready in time for Tranche 3 production.[25] In July 2010, Eurofighter announced that the AESA radar would enter service in 2015.[26][27]

]Orders

The first production contract was signed on 30 January 1998 between Eurofighter GmbH, Eurojet and NETMA.[28] The procurement totals were as follows: UK 232, Germany 180, Italy 121, and Spain 87. Production was again allotted according to procurement: British Aerospace (37.42%), DASA (29.03%), Aeritalia (19.52%), and CASA (14.03%).
On 2 September 1998, a naming ceremony was held at Farnborough, England. This saw the Typhoon name formally adopted, initially for export aircraft only. This was reportedly resisted by Germany; perhaps because the Hawker Typhoon was a fighter-bomber aircraft which served with the RAF during the Second World War against German targets.[29] The name "Spitfire II" (for the famous British WWII fighter, theSupermarine Spitfire) had also been considered and rejected for the same reason early in the development programme. In September 1998 contracts were signed for production of 148 Tranche 1 aircraft and procurement of long lead-time items for Tranche 2 aircraft.[30] In March 2008 the final aircraft out of Tranche 1 was delivered to the German Luftwaffe, with all successive deliveries being at the Tranche 2 standard.[31] On 21 October 2008, the first two of 91 Tranche 2 aircraft, ordered four years before, were delivered to RAF Coningsby.[32]
In October 2008, the Eurofighter nations were considering splitting the 236-fighter Tranche 3 into two parts.[33] In June 2009, RAF Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy suggested that the RAF fleet might only be 123 jets, instead of the 232 previously planned.[34] In spite of this reduction in the number of required aircraft, on 14 May 2009, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown confirmed that the UK would move ahead with the third batch purchase. A contract for the first part, Tranche 3A, was signed at the end of July 2009 for 112 aircraft split across the four partner nations, including 40 aircraft for the UK, 31 for Germany, 21 for Italy and 20 for Spain.[35][36] These 40 aircraft were said to have fully covered the UK's obligations in the project by Air Commodore Chris Bushell, due to cost overruns in the project.[37]


Costs

In 1988, the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Armed Forces told the UK House of Commons that the European Fighter Aircraft would "be a major project, costing the United Kingdom about £7 billion".[38] It was soon apparent that a more realistic estimate was £13 billion,[39] made up of £3.3 billion development costs[40] plus £30 million per aircraft.[41] By 1997 the estimated cost was £17 billion; by 2003, £20 billion, and the in-service date (2003; defined as the date of delivery of the first aircraft to the RAF) was 54 months late.[42][43] After 2003 the Ministry of Defence have refused to release updated cost estimates on the grounds of 'commercial sensitivity',[44] however in 2011 the National Audit Office estimated the UK's "total programme cost [would] eventually hit £37 billion".[45]
By 2007, Germany estimated the system cost (aircraft, training plus spare parts) to €120m and said it was in perpetual increase.[46] On 17 June 2009, Germany ordered 31 aircraft of Tranche 3A for €2,800m, leading to a system cost of €90m per aircraft.[3] The UK's Committee of Public Accounts reported that the mismanagement of the project had helped increase the cost of each aircraft by 75 percent. Defence Secretary Liam Fox responded that "I am determined that in the future such projects are properly run from the outset, and I have announced reforms to reduce equipment delays and cost overruns."[47]


Delays

The financial burdens placed on Germany by reunification caused Helmut Kohl to make an election promise to cancel the Eurofighter. In early to mid-1991 German Defence MinisterVolker Rühe sought to withdraw Germany from the project in favour of using Eurofighter technology in a cheaper, lighter plane. Due to the amount of money already spent on development, the number of jobs dependent on the project, and the binding commitments on each partner government, Helmut Kohl was unable to withdraw; "Rühe's predecessors had locked themselves into the project by a punitive penalty system of their own devising."[48]
In 1995 concerns over workshare appeared. Since the formation of Eurofighter the workshare split had been agreed at the 33/33/21/13 (United Kingdom/Germany/Italy/Spain) based on the number of units being ordered by each contributing nation. All the nations then reduced their orders. The UK cut its orders from 250 to 232, Germany from 250 to 140, Italy from 165 to 121 and Spain from 100 to 87.[48] According to these order levels the workshare split should have been 39/24/22/15 UK/Germany/Italy/Spain, Germany was unwilling to give up such a large amount of work.[48] In January 1996, after much negotiation between German and UK partners, a compromise was reached whereby Germany would purchase another 40 aircraft.[48] The workshare split is now 43% for EADS MAS in Germany and Spain; 37.5% BAE Systems in the UK; and 19.5% for Alenia in Italy.[49]
The next major milestone came at the Farnborough Airshow in September 1996.[citation needed] The UK announced the funding for the construction phase of the project. In November 1996 Spain confirmed its order but Germany delayed its decision. After much diplomatic activity between Germany and UK, an interim funding arrangement of DM100 million (€51 million) was contributed by the German government in July 1997 to continue flight trials. Further negotiation finally resulted in German approval to purchase the Eurofighter in October 1997.[citation needed]


Production

Gray-overall jet aircraft taxiing towards right of photograph. On the tail and underneath the cockpit are green and yellow symbols.
Eurofighter Typhoon F2, RAF single-seat fighter variant
A Luftwaffe single-seater version of the Eurofighter
The Eurofighter Typhoon is unique in modern combat aircraft in that there are four separate assembly lines. Each partner company assembles its own national aircraft, but builds the same parts for all 683 aircraft (including exports). A fifth assembly line will be established for the final 48 Saudi aircraft.
Premium AEROTEC
Main centre fuselage[50]
EADS CASA
Right wing, leading edge slats
BAE Systems
Front fuselage (including foreplanes), canopy, dorsal spine, tail fin, inboard flaperons, rear fuselage section
Alenia Aeronautica
Left wing, outboard flaperons, rear fuselage sections
Production is divided into three tranches (see table below). Tranches are a production/funding distinction, and do not necessarily imply an incremental increase in capability with each tranche. Tranche 3 will most likely be based on late Tranche 2 aircraft with improvements added. Tranche 3 has been split into A and B parts.[36]
Tranches are further divided up into production standard/capability blocks and funding/procurement batches, though these do not coincide, and are not the same thing; e.g., the Eurofighter designated FGR4 by the RAF is a Tranche 1, block 5. Batch 1 covered block 1, but batch 2 covered blocks 2, 2B and 5.
Expected production summary
CountryTranche 1Tranche 2Tranche 3A[51]Total
 Austria150015
 Germany337931143
 Italy28472196
 Saudi Arabia0244872
 Spain19342073
 United Kingdom536740[52]160
Total148299112[51]559
The change in Austria's order from 6 Tranche 1 and 12 Tranche 2 aircraft to 15 Tranche 1 jets led to a reduction in Tranche 1 quantities for the four partner nations, with a commensurate increase in Tranche 2 numbers. 24 Saudi aircraft were taken from UK Tranche 2 production, and were to have been replaced at the end of Tranche 2, but will now be accounted against the UK's Tranche 3A total. This marks an effective reduction of 24 aircraft in the UK order total.[53]
On 25 May 2011 the 100th production aircraft, ZK315, rolled off the production line at Warton.[54]


Exports

Countries operating or ordering the Eurofighter Typhoon


Austria

On 2 July 2002, the Austrian government announced the decision to buy the Typhoon as its new air defence aircraft. The purchase of 18 Typhoons was agreed on 1 July 2003, and included training, logistics, maintenance, and a simulator. On 26 June 2007, Austrian Minister for Defense Norbert Darabos announced a reduction to 15 aircraft.[55] The first aircraft was delivered on 12 July 2007 and formally entered service in the Austrian Air Force.[56]


Saudi Arabia

After unsuccessful campaigns in South Korea and Singapore (losing in both cases to versions of the Boeing F-15E),[57] on 18 August 2006 it was announced that Saudi Arabia had agreed to purchase 72 Typhoons.[58] In November and December it was reported that Saudi Arabia had threatened to buy French Rafales because of a UK Serious Fraud Office investigation into the Al Yamamah ("the dove") defence deals which commenced in the 1980s.[59]
On 14 December 2006, Britain's attorney general, Lord Goldsmith, ordered that the Serious Fraud Office discontinue its investigation in the BAE Systems' alleged bribery to senior Saudi officials in the al-Yamamah contracVs, citing "the need to safeguard national and international secWrity".[60] The Times has raised the possibility that RAF production aircraft will be diverted as early Saudi Arabian aircraft, with the service forced to wait for its full complement of aircraft.[61] This arrangement would mirror the diversion of RAF Tornados to the RSAF. The Times has also reported that such an arrangement will make the UK purchase of its Tranche 3 commitments more likely.[61] On 17 September 2007, Saudi Arabia confirmed it had signed a GB£4.43 billion contract for 72 aircraft.[62] 24 aircraft will be at the Tranche 2 build standard, previously destined for the UK RAF, the first being delivered in 2008. The remaining 48 aircraft will be assembled in Saudi Arabia and delivered from 2011.[63] Saudi Arabia is considering an order of 24 additional jets in the future,[64] more recent reports suggest that number may be as high as 60[65] or 72,[66] but this may have been superseded by Saudi Arabia's request in August 2010 to purchase 84 new F-15s.[67]
On 29 September 2008 the United States Department of State approved the sale, required because of a certain technology governed by the ITAR process which was incorporated into theMIDS of the Eurofighter.[68][69][70][71]
On 22 October 2008, the first Typhoon in the colours of the Royal Saudi Air Force flew for the first time at BAE Systems’ Warton Aerodrome, marking the start of the test flight programme for RSAF aircraft.[72] Following the official handover of the first Eurofighter Typhoon to the Royal Saudi Air Force on 11 June 2009, the delivery ferry flight took place on 23 June 2009. Since 2010, BAE Systens has been training Saudi Arabian personnel at their factory in Warton, in preparation for setting up an assembly plant in Saudi Arabia.[73]


Potential customers


India
Eurofighter Typhoon Taxies to the runway for take off at Aero India 2011, Yelahanka Air force base Bangalore.
Eurofighter Typhoon is one of the contenders in the Indian MRCA competition, worth $10 billion, to supply the Indian Air Force with 126 "Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft". The other competitors are the Boeing F/A-18IN, Dassault RafaleJAS 39 GripenNG/INMikoyan MiG-35, and Lockheed Martin F-16IN Fighting Falcon.[74] Bernhard Gerwert, CEO of EADS military air systems, said that India is invited to join the Eurofighter Typhoon programme as a partner. The production of the Eurofighter Typhoon will create thousands of new jobs in India and Europe. He also said that in order to win the contract, EADS would move avionics jobs from Germany to India.[75] The campaign is fully supported by the four European nations (Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Italy), their four Air Forces and Europe's leading aerospace companies Alenia/Finmeccanica, BAE Systems and EADS.[76]
In July 2007, Indian Air Force's (IAF) Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters, which were at Waddington for the bilateral air "Exercise Indradhanush-2007", trained with RAF Typhoons.[77]
In January 2010, India's ambassador to Italy, Arif Shahid Khan, said that the Eurofighter was "leading the race" to win the MMRCA competition.[78] As reported by the Ministry of Defence on 27 April 2011, the Government of India announced that the Eurofighter is one of two fighters selected for initial bidding for the multi-billion dollar deal of 126 Multi-role medium fighter aircraft. The other fighter shortlisted is the French Rafale.[79]

Japan
In March 2007, Jane's Information Group reported that the Typhoon was the favourite to win the contest for Japan's next-generation fighter requirement.[80] The other competitors then were the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle.[80] On 17 October 2007, Japanese Defence Minister Shigeru Ishiba confirmed that Japan may buy the Typhoon. Although the F-22 Raptor was in his words "exceptional", it was not "absolutely necessary for Japan", and the Typhoon was the best alternative.[81] The F-22 is currentlyunavailable for export per US law. During a visit to Japan in June 2009, Andy Latham of BAE pointed out that while F-22 exports were restricted to keep advanced military technology from falling into the wrong hands, selling the Typhoon would take a "no black box approach", that is that even licensed production and integration with Japanese equipment would not carry the risk of leakage of restricted military technology.[82] In July 2010, it was reported that the Japan Air Self-Defense Force favoured acquiring the F-35 ahead of the Typhoon and the F/A-18E/F to fulfill its F-X requirement due to its stealth characteristics, but the Defense Ministry was delaying its budget request to evaluate when the F-35 would be produced and delivered.[83] David Howell of the UK foreign office has suggested that Japan could partner with Britain in the continuing development of the Eurofighter.[84]

Greece
In 1999, the Greek government agreed to acquire 60 Typhoons in order to replace its existing second-generation combat aircraft.[85] The purchase was put on hold due to budget constraints, largely driven by other development programmes and the need to cover the cost of the 2004 Summer Olympics. In June 2006 the government announced a 22 billion euro multi-year acquisition plan intended to provide the necessary budgetary framework to enable the purchase of a next-generation fighter over the next 10 years. The Typhoon is currently under consideration to fill this requirement.[86]

Others
During the 2008 Farnborough Airshow it was announced that Oman was in an "advanced stage" of discussions towards purchasing EF Typhoons as a replacement for its Jaguar aircraft.[87][88] Oman remained interested in ordering Typhoons in April 2010[89] though the Saab JAS 39 Gripen was also being considered.[90] In April 2010, Oman revealed negotiations for an order of 18 F-16s, thus making a Eurofighter order less likely.[91] The Qatar Emiri Air Force is, as of January 2011, evaluating the Typhoon together with the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, the Boeing F-15 and the Dassault Rafale to replace its current inventory of Dassault Mirage 2000-5s. The total order for 24–36 aircraft will be decided on by the end of 2012.[92][93]
Other potential customers of the Typhoon are Denmark, Norway[94] and Romania. BAE Systems itself reports that Typhoon is "actively being promoted in a number of other markets including Greece, Switzerland, Turkey and Japan".[95] Turkey has since indicated a preference for purchasing larger quantities of F-35 Lightning IIs and that: "Eurofighter is off Turkey's agenda".[96][97] In 2010, the government of Serbia displayed open interest in the Eurofighter.[98] In July 2011, South Korea was invited to join the Eurofighter project as a full member.[99]
On 2 December 2009, BAE Systems announced its intention to market the Typhoon as a replacement for the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) Mikoyan MiG-29N, due to be phased out in late 2010. According to the Regional Director-Business Development Dave Potter, the Typhoon's multi-role capabilities allow it to replace the MiG-29N.[100] Other contenders include Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Boeing F-15, Dassault Rafale, JAS 39 Gripen NG, Sukhoi Su-35, and Lockheed F-16C/D block 52 Fighting Falcon.[101]


Upgrades

In 2002, the MBDA Meteor was selected as the long range air-to-air missile armament of Eurofighter Typhoon.[102] Pending Meteor availability, Typhoon will be equipped with theRaytheon AMRAAM. The predicted in-service date for Meteor is August 2012.[103]
In 2009, Eurofighter operators and manufacturers met to consider the upgrading of the current fleet with the MBDA Meteor missile and an Active Electronically Scanned Array radar.[51]On 22 June 2011, it was announced that the partner nations had agreed to fund development of the next generation E-Scan radar, and confirmed an entry into service date of 2015.[104]
Eurojet is attempting to find funding to test a thrust vectoring nozzle (TVN) on a flight demonstrator.[105] Additionally, the RAF has sought to develop conformal fuel tanks (CFT) for their Typhoons to free up underwing space for weapons.[106][N 2]


Design


Airframe and avionics

The Typhoon is a highly agile aircraft at both supersonic and low speeds, achieved though having an intentionally relaxed stability design. It has a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire control system providing artificial stability, manual operation alone could not compensate for the inherent instability. The fly-by-wire system is described as "carefree", and prevents the pilot from exceeding the permitted manoeuvre envelope. Roll control is primarily achieved by use of the wing flaperons. Pitch control is by operation of the foreplanes and flaperons, the yaw control is by rudder.[107] Control surfaces are moved through two independent hydraulic systems that are incorporated in the aircraft, which also supply various other items, such as the canopy, brakes and undercarriage; powered by a 4000 psi engine-driven gearbox.[108]
Spanish Air Force Typhoon taking off in the RIAT 2007.
Navigation is via both GPS and an inertial navigation system. The Typhoon can use Instrument Landing System (ILS) for landing in poor weather. The aircraft also features a ground proximity warning system based on the TERPROM Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN) system used by the Panavia Tornado.[109] The Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) provides a Link 16 data link.[110]
The aircraft employs a sophisticated and highly integrated Defensive Aids Sub-System named Praetorian[111] (formerly called EuroDASS).[112]Praetorian monitors and responds automatically to Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface threats, provides an all-round prioritized assessment, and can respond to multiple threats simutaneously. Threat detection methods include a Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and a Laser Warning Receiver(LWR, only on UK Typhoons). Protection is provided by Chaff, Jaff and Flares, Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and a Towed Radar Decoy (TRD).[113]
The Typhoon features lightweight construction (82% composites consisting of 70% carbon fibre composites and 12% glass reinforced composites)[114] with an estimated lifespan of 6000 flying hours.[115]


Cockpit


General features

MHDDs and pedestal panel with centre stick in the Typhoon cockpit
The Eurofighter Typhoon features a glass cockpit without any conventional instruments. It includes: three full colour multi-function head-down displays (MHDDs) (the formats on which are manipulated by means of softkeys, XY cursor, and voice (DVI) command), a wide angle head-up display (HUD) with forward-looking infrared (FLIR), voice and hands-on throttle and stick (Voice+HOTAS), Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS), Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS), a manual data-entry facility (MDEF) located on the left glareshield and a fully integrated aircraft warning system with a dedicated warnings panel (DWP). Reversionary flying instruments, lit by LEDs, are located under a hinged right glareshield.[116]
The cockpit was developed with a user-centric focus, the layout and functionality was created through feedback and assessments from military pilots and a specialist testing facility.[117] The pilot controls the aircraft by means of a centre stick and left hand throttles, designed on a Hand on Throttle & Stick (HOTAS) principle to lower pilot workloads.[118] Emergency escape is provided by a Martin-Baker Mk.16A ejection seat, with the canopy being jettisoned by two rocket motors.[119] The HMSS has been delayed for many years but should be operational by the end of 2011.[120]
The aircraft's standard g-force protection is provided by the full-cover anti-trousers (FCAGTs).[121] This specially developed g suit provides sustained protection up to 9 g. The Typhoon pilots of the German Air Force and Austrian Air Force wear a hydrostatic g-suit called Libelle(dragonfly) Multi G Plus instead,[122][123][124] which also provides protection to the arms, theoretically allowing for more complete g tolerance.


Voice control

The Typhoon DVI system utilises a speech recognition module (SRM), developed by Smiths Aerospace (now GE Aviation Systems) and Computing Devices (now General Dynamics UK). It was the first production DVI system utilised in a military cockpit. DVI provides the pilot with an additional natural mode of command and control over approximately 26 non-critical cockpit functions, to reduce pilot workload, improve aircraft safety, and expand mission capabilities. An important step in the development of the DVI occurred in 1987 when Texas Instruments completed the TMS-320-C30, a digital signal processor, enabling reductions size and system complexity required. The project was given the go ahead in July 1997, with development and pilot assessment carried out on the Eurofighter Active Cockpit Simulator at BAE Systems Warton.[125]
The DVI system is speaker-dependent; i.e., requires each pilot to create a template. It is not used for any safety-critical or weapon-critical tasks, such as weapon release or lowering of the undercarriage, but is used for a wide range of other cockpit functions.[126][127] Voice commands are confirmed by visual or aural feedback. The system is seen as a major design feature in the reduction of pilot workload and even allows the pilot to assign targets to himself with two simple voice commands, or to any of his wingmen with only five commands.[128]


Search and track system

The Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment (PIRATE) system is an infrared search and track system (IRST) mounted on the port side of the fuselage, forward of the windscreen.SELEX Galileo is the lead contractor which, along with Thales Optronics (system technical authority) and Tecnobit of Spain, make up the EUROFIRST consortium responsible for the system's design and development.
PIRATE operates in two IR bands, 3–5 and 8–11 micrometres. When used with the radar in an air-to-air role, it functions as an infrared search and track system, providing passive target detection and tracking. In an air-to-surface role, it performs target identification and acquisition. It also provides a navigation and landing aid. PIRATE is linked to the pilot’s helmet mounted display.[129]
Eurofighters starting with Tranche 1 block 5 have the PIRATE. The first Eurofighter Typhoon with PIRATE-IRST was delivered to the Italian Aeronautica Militare in August 2007.[130] More advanced targeting capabilities can be provided with the addition of a targeting pod such as the LITENING pod.[131]


Performance

Eurofighter 9803.ogg
Flight demonstration at WTD61Manching/Germany.
Gray jet fighter in-flight, adopting nose-up attitude against blue clear sky
Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon T1
In 2004, United States Air Force Chief of Staff General John P. Jumper said after flying the Eurofighter, "I have flown all the air force jets. None was as good as the Eurofighter."[132][133]
The Typhoon's combat performance, compaVed to the F-22 Raptor and the upcoming F-35 Lightning II[134] fighters and the French Dassault Rafale, has been the subject of much discussion. In March 2005, Jumper, then the only person to have flown both the Eurofighter Typhoon and the Raptor, talked to Air Force Print News about these two aircraft. He said,
The Eurofighter is both agile and sophisticated, but is still difficult to compare to the F/A-22 Raptor. They are different kinds of airplanes to start with; it's like asking us to compare a NASCAR car with a Formula One car. They are both exciting in different ways, but they are designed for different levels of performance. …The Eurofighter is certainly, as far as smoothness of controls and the ability to pull (and sustain high g forces), very impressive. That is what it was designed to do, especially the version I flew, with the avionics, the color moving map displays, etc. — all absolutely top notch. The maneuverability of the airplane in close-in combat was also very impressive.
[135]
In July 2007, the Indian Air Force fielded the Su-30MKI during the Indra-Dhanush exercise with Royal Air Force's Typhoon. This was the first time that the two jets had taken part in such an exercise.[136][137] The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the MKI's radar during the exercise to protect the highly-classified N011M Bars.[138] RAF Tornado pilots were candid in their admission of the Su-30MKI's superior manoeuvring in the air, just as they had anticipated, but the IAF pilots were also impressed by the Typhoon's agility in the air.[139] This summary of the Indra-Dhanush is often mis-quoted by leaving the word "Tornado" out of the statement, to make it appear that it is the Typhoon which was less manoeuvrable than the Su-30MKI. The RAF however, were adamant that the Typhoon and Sukhoi did not actually go in mock combat on that particular exercise. In this context, the quote from the IAF pilots concerning the agility of the Typhoon no longer appears self contradictory.
The Typhoon is capable of supersonic cruise without using afterburners (referred to as supercruise). According to the official German Luftwaffe and Austrian Eurofighter website, the maximum speed possible without reheat is between Mach 1.2 and Mach 1.5.[140] [N 3][142] Air Forces Monthly gives a maximum supercruise speed of Mach 1.1 for the RAF FGR4 multirole version.[143] It has been suggested, in contradiction to other sources that the Eurofighter Typhoon could only supercruise in a clean configuration without external missiles and fuel tanks. While this is untrue, attention is drawn by these suggestions to the fact that not all weapons loadouts are necessarily certified for supersonic flight at all, even with afterburner.[citation needed]
The Eurofighter consortium claims their fighter has a larger sustained subsonic turn rate, sustained supersonic turn rate, and faster acceleration at Mach 0.9 at 20,000 feet (6,100 m) than the Grumman F-14 TomcatF-15 EagleF-16 Fighting FalconMcDonnell Douglas F/A-18 HornetDassault Mirage 2000, Dassault Rafale, the Sukhoi Su-27, and the Mikoyan MiG-29.[144][145]
In 2005, a trainer Eurofighter T1 was reported to have had a chance encounter the previous year with two U.S. Air Force F-15Es over the Lake District in the north of England. The encounter became a mock dogfight with the Eurofighter allegedly emerging "victorious".[146]
In the 2005 Singapore evaluation, the Typhoon won all three combat tests, including one in which a single Typhoon defeated three RSAF F-16s, and reliably completed all planned flight tests.[147] In July 2009, Former Chief of Air Staff for the Royal Air Force, Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy, said that "The Eurofighter Typhoon is an excellent aircraft. It will be the backbone of the Royal Air Force along with the JSF".[148]
Eurofighter claims that their aircraft will be able to defeat a "generic" stealth fighter through the use of IRST and by flying a wall formation, which would ensure that at least some of the Eurofighters are not facing the minimum nose-on RCS that stealth fighters have been designed for.[149]


Air-to-ground capabilities

A Royal Air Force Eurofighter TyphoonFGR4 at Nellis AFB in Nevada, USA
The Typhoon is a multi-role fighter with maturing air-to-ground capabilities. Earlier than scheduled, the RAF integrated the air to ground capability, based on the Rafael[150]/Ultra Electronics Litening III laser designator[151] and the Enhanced Paveway II/III laser guided bomb[152]under the "Austere" programme.[153] A more comprehensive air-to-ground attack capability including Paveway IV, EGBU-16 bombs and a higher degree of automation will be achieved for all partner nations with the Phase 1 Enhancements currently in development.[154] Synthetic Aperture Radar is expected to be fielded as part of the AESA radar upgrade starting in 2013 which will give the Eurofighter an all-weather ground attack capability.[155]
The absence of such a capability is believed to have been a factor in the type's rejection from Singapore's fighter competition in 2005. At the time it was claimed that Singapore was concerned about the delivery timescale and the ability of the Eurofighter partner nations to fund the current capability packages.[156] With the planned Phase 2 Enhancements Eurofighter GmbH hopes to increase the appeal of Typhoon to possible export customers and to make the aircraft more useful to partner air forces.[154]


Radar signature reduction features

Although not designated a stealth fighter, measures were taken to reduce the Typhoon's radar cross section (RCS), especially from the frontal aspect.[157][158] An example of these measures is that the Typhoon has jet inlets that conceal the front of the jet engine (a strong radar target) from radar. Many important potential radar targets, such as the wing, canard and fin leading edges, are highly swept, so will reflect radar energy well away from the front sector.[159] Some external weapons are mounted semi-recessed into the aircraft, partially shielding these missiles from incoming radar waves.[157] In addition radar absorbent materials (RAM) developed primarily by EADS/DASA coat many of the most significant reflectors, e.g., the wing leading edges, the intake edges and interior, the rudder surrounds, and strakes.[157][160] The Typhoon does not use internal storage of weapons. External mounting points are used instead, which increases its radar cross section but allows for more and larger stores.[161]
The Eurofighter operates automatic Emission Controls (EMCON) to reduce the Electro-Magnetic emissions of the current mechanically scanned Radar.[157] The Captor-M was the first NATO-Radar with three rather than two working channels, one intended for classification of jammer and for jamming suppression.[162] The German BW-Plan 2009 indicates that Germany will equip/retrofit the Luftwaffe's Eurofighters with the AESA Captor-E from 2012.[163] The conversion to AESA will give the Eurofighter a low probability of intercept radar with much better jam resistance.[164][165] These include an innovative design with a gimbal to meet RAF requirements for a wider scan field than a fixed AESA.[166] The coverage of a fixed AESA is limited to 120° in azimuth and elevation.[167]
According to the RAF, the Eurofighter's RCS is better than RAF requirements. Comments from BAE Systems suggest the radar return is around one quarter of that of the Tornado it replaces.[157] The Eurofighter is thought to have an RCS of less than one square metre in a clean configuration by author Doug Richardson, although no official value is available.[159]
The manufacturers have carried out tests on the early Eurofighter prototypes to optimize the low observability characteristics of the aircraft from the early 1990s. Testing at BAE's Warton facility on the DA4 prototype measured the RCS of the aircraft and investigated the effects of a variety of RAM coatings. Another measure to reduce the likelihood of discovery is the use of passive sensors, which minimises the radiation of treacherous electronic emissions. While canards generally have poor stealth characteristics,[168] the flight control system is designed to minimise the RCS in flight, maintaining the elevon trim and canards at an angle to minimise RCS.[169][170]


Operational history


Entry into service

A Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon, on deployment near Massachusetts, USA
On 4 August 2003, Germany accepted the first series production Eurofighter (GT003).[171] Also that year, Spain took delivery of its first series production aircraft.[172] On 16 December 2005, the Typhoon reached initial operational capability (IOC) with the Italian Air Force. Its Typhoons were put into service as air defence fighters at Grosseto Air Base, and immediately assigned to Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) at the same base.[173]
On 9 August 2007, the UK's Ministry of Defence reported that No. XI Squadron of the RAF, which stood up as a Typhoon squadron on 29 March 2007, had taken delivery of its first two multi-role Typhoons.[174] Two of XI Squadron's Typhoons were sent to intercept a RussianTupolev Tu-95 approaching British airspace on 17 August 2007.[175] The RAF Typhoons were declared combat ready in the air-to-ground role by 1 July 2008.[176] The RAF Typhoons were projected to be ready to deploy for operations by mid-2008.[174]
Around 25 April 2008 a Typhoon from 17 Squadron at RAF Coningsby, operating at the US Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake test centre in California, USA, suffered extensive damage during landing when its landing gear did not deploy.[177] Although no immediate cause was determined it was speculated that pilot error may have been to blame.[178] The National Audit Office observed in 2011 that the distribution of the Eurofighter's parts supply and repairs over several countries has led to parts shortages, long timescales for repairs and the cannibalisation of some aircraft to keep others flying.[179]
On 11 September 2008, the combined flying time of the five customer Air Forces and the industrial Flight Test programme saw aircraft surpass the 50,000 flight hours milestone.[180] On 31 March 2009 a Eurofighter Typhoon fired an AMRAAM whilst having its radar in passive mode for the first time, the necessary target data for the missile was acquired by the radar of a second Eurofighter Typhoon and transmitted using the Multi Functional Information Distribution System (MIDS).[181]


Deployments

On 17 July 2009, Italian Air Force Eurofighters were deployed to protect Albania's airspace.[182] In September 2009, four RAF Typhoons deployed to RAF Mount Pleasant replacing theTornado F3s defending the Falkland Islands. The government of Argentina "is understood to have made a formal protest".[183]
On 24 August 2010, the project suffered its first fatality when a two seat Typhoon crashed, for unknown reasons, killing a Saudi Air Force Lieutenant Colonel, the front seat occupant, shortly after taking off from Moron Air Base in Spain. Experts suspect that a bird strike had destroyed "important sensors".[184][185] The Spanish instructor ejected and sustained only minor injuries.[186] Following this incident the German Luftwaffe grounded its 55 planes on 16 September 2010,[187][188] amidst concerns that after ejecting successfully the pilot had fallen to his death. In response to the investigation of the crash, on 17 September 2010, the RAF temporarily grounded all Typhoon training flights. Quick Reaction Alert duties were unaffected.[189] On 21 September, the RAF announced that the harness system had been sufficiently modified to enable routine flying from RAF Coningsby. The Austrian Air Force also said that all its aircraft had been cleared for flight.[190] On 24 August 2010, the ejection seat manufacturer Martin Baker commented: ".. under certain conditions, the quick release fitting could be unlocked using the palm of the hands, rather than the thumb and fingers and that this posed a risk of inadvertent release," and added that a modification had been rapidly developed and approved "to eliminate this risk" and was being fitted to all Typhoon seats.[191]


Recent service

In January 2011 the aircraft passed the milestone of 100,000 flying hours across the entire fleet.[2]
On 18 March 2011, British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the UK would deploy Typhoons, alongside Panavia Tornados, to enforce a no-fly zone in Libya.[192] On 20 March 10 Typhoons from RAF Coningsby and RAF Leuchars arrived at the Gioia del Colle airbase in southern Italy.[193] On 21 March RAF Typhoons flew their first ever combat mission while patrolling the no-fly Zone.[194] On 29 March, it was revealed that the RAF were short of pilots to fly the required number of sorties over Libya and were having to divert personnel from Typhoon training in order to meet the shortfall.[195]
On 12 April 2011 a mixed pair of RAF Typhoon and Tornado GR4[196] dropped precision-guided bombs on ground vehicles operated by Gaddafi forces that were parked in an abandoned tank park.[197] Chief of the Air StaffAir Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton, revealed during the Royal Aeronautical Society's Aerospace 2011 conference in London, that each aircraft dropped one GBU-16 Paveway II 454 kg (1,000 lb) laser guided bomb which struck "very successfully and very accurately". The event represented "a significant milestone in the delivery of multi-role Typhoon."[198] Target designation was provided by the Tornados with their Litening III targeting pods due to the lack of Typhoon pilots trained in air-to-ground missions.[199]
UK's Defence Secretary Liam Fox admitted on 14 April that Britain's Eurofighter Typhoon jets were grounded last year due to shortage of spare parts. The RAF is currently "cannibalising" aircraft for spare parts in a bid to keep the maximum number of Typhoons operational on any given day. The Ministry of Defence had warned the problems were likely to continue until 2015.[200]


Variants

Prototype on display at the 1998 Dubai Airshow with sun canopy fully deployed. The multiple roundels for the air forces are: (left to right) Spanish Ejército del Aire, ItalianAeronautica Militare, British Royal Air Force, and German Luftwaffe.
The Eurofighter is produced in single-seat and twin-seat variants. The twin-seat variant is not used operationally, but only for training. The aircraft has been manufactured in three major standards; seven Development Aircraft (DA), seven production standard Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA) for further system development[201] and a continuing number of Series Production Aircraft. The production aircraft are now operational with the partner nation's air forces.
The Tranche 1 aircraft were produced from 2000 onwards. Aircraft capabilities are being increased incrementally, with each software upgrade resulting in a different standard, known as blocks.[202] With the introduction of the block 5 standard, the R2 retrofit programme began to bring all aircraft to that standard.[202]


Tranche 1

Block 1
Initial operational capability and basic air defence capability.
Block 2
Initial air-to-air capabilities.
Block 2B
Full air-to-air capabilities.
Block 5
Full operational capability (FOC) by combining existing air-to-air role with air-to-ground capabilities.


Tranche 2

Block 8
New mission computers required for the integration of future weapons such as Meteor, Storm Shadow and Taurus. (Differences in the build to Tranche 1 related to changes in production technology or obsolescence).
Block 10
Software: EOC 1 (advanced multi-role step 1) AIM-120C-5 AMRAAM, IRIS-T digital. A2G: GBU-24, GPS-controlled weapons, ALARM, Paveway III & IV, Rafael Litening III
Block 15
Software: EOC 2 (advanced multi-role step 2) A2A Meteor A2G: TAURUS, Storm Shadow, Brimstone[203]


Tranche 3

These aircraft will have interfaces for possible future improvements, but will be delivered at a Tranche 2 level of capability.[204]
The Indian Navy has made a request for information for a carrier based variant of the Eurofighter. In this contest it will once again be up against the Rafale, which split from the Eurofighter project over the need for a carrier based variant.[205]
In February 2011, BAE debuted a navalized Typhoon in response to the Indian tender. The model offered is STOBAR (Short Take Off But Arrested Recovery) capable corresponding to the Indian Navy's future Vikrant class aircraft carrier. The changes needed to enable the Typhoon to launch by ski-jump and recover by arrestor hook added about 500 kg to the airframe.[206]


Operators

Typhoon F2 of the RAF
Spanish Eurofighter Typhoon
RSAF Eurofighter Typhoon
 Austria
 Germany
 Italy
 Saudi Arabia
 Spain
  • Spanish Air Force – 28, 59 on order.[209]
    • 111 and 112 Operational Squadrons[208]
    • 113 Squadron, OCU Tactical pilot training and evaluation[208]
 United Kingdom


Accidents

  • On 21 November 2002, the Spanish twin-seat Eurofighter prototype DA-6 crashed due to a double engine flame-out caused by surges of the two engines. The two crew members escaped unhurt.[211]
  • On 24 August 2010, a Eurofighter aircraft crashed at Spain's Morón air base moments after take-off for a routine training flight. It was being piloted by a lieutenant colonel from the Saudi Arabian air force, who was killed, and a Spanish air force commander, who ejected safely.[212]


Aircraft on display

  • Eurofighter DA-2 Typhoon (serial number ZH588) is on display at the Royal Air Force Museum London. This aircraft is one of seven EF 2000 development aircraft built by the Eurofighter Partner Companies, and was used for flight testing. The aircraft was delivered by road on 22 January 2008. Engineers from RAF Coningsby and RAF St. Athan assembled the aircraft for display. It is hanging in the Museum's Milestones of Flight Exhibition Hall.[213]
  • The first development aircraft Eurofighter DA-1 can be seen at the Deutsches Museum Flugwerft Schleissheim at Oberschleißheim Airport in the north of Munich. Its first flight took place in 1994 and it was handed over to the museum in 2008.[214]
  • In summer 2009 Eurofighter DA-4, serial number ZH590, went on display at Imperial War Museum Duxford, having been given to the museum by the Ministry of Defence in 2008. It is exhibited as part of the museum's 'AirSpace' gallery, as an example of the development of aircraft technology.[215]


Specifications

Eurofighter Typhoon line drawing.svg
 External images
Cutaway diagram of Eurofighter Typhoon
Cutaway of Eurofighter Typhoon by Flight Global, 2006.
EJ200 engine (foreground)
The aircraft's turbofan engine (front)
German ground crew mount an IRIS-T to a Eurofighter
Data from Typhoon performance data,[216] BAE Systems page,[143]Superfighters[217] and Brassey's Modern Fighters: The Ultimate Guide to In-Flight Tactics, Technology, Weapons, and Equipment[218]
General characteristics
Performance
Armament
Avionics

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