INDONESIA DEFENCE BLOG ADALAH BLOG TENTANG INFO ALUTSISTA TERKINI DI DUNIA

Saturday, July 31, 2010

ABOUT INDONESIAN AEROSPACE

Corporate Profile Vision & Mission | Subsidiary Office

PT Dirgantara Indonesia/Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) is one of the indigenous aerospace company in Asia with core competence in aircraft design, development and manufacturing of civilian and military regional commuter aircraft.

Since being established in 1976, the company has successfully exploited its ability as industry of manufacture and have diversified its product not only in the field of aircraft but also other area such as Information Technology, Automotive, Maritime, Simulation Technology, Industrial Turbine, and Engineering Services.

In production line, Dirgantara Indonesia has delivered more than 300 units of aircraft & helicopters, defence system, aircraft components and other services. Through the implementation of restructuring program in the beginning of 2004, Dirgantara Indonesia now is supported by 3.720 employees formerly 9.670; while the 18 business units, become:

  • Aircraft (Airplane & Helicopter)
  • Aircraft Services (Maintenance, Overhaul, Repair and Alteration)
  • Aerostructure (Parts & Components, Sub Assemblies, Assemblies Tools & Equipment).
  • Engineering Services (Communication Technology, Simulator Technology, Information Technology Solution, Design Center)

Hopefully, this aircraft industry will become an efficient and adaptable business institution. Dirgantara Indonesia cover an area of 86,98 hectares of building. The production activities of the company are sustained by 232 units of various machinery and equipment. Apart from this, there are some other equipment spread over in various assembly lines, laboratories, and service & maintenance units.


Aircraft Joint Development and Production:

Services :
  • Engineering work packages; design, development, testing
  • Manufacturing subcontracts
  • Aircraft Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO)
  • Engine Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO)

Aircraft under license Production :

Helicopter under license Production :

Subcontract Program :
  • Boeing 757
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industry
  • Airbus A330, A340, A380

Vision & Mission

Vission:

To be the world class aerospace company based on high technology mastery and cost competitiveness in the global market

Mission:

  • Conduct business activities with the orientation on producing competitive cost products and services.

  • As the Center of Competency in Aerospace Industry especially in engineering, design, manufacturing, production, and maintenance for both commercial and military mission aircrafts.

  • As a major player in the global industries which has strategic alliance with other world class Aerospace Industries


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Head Office
Address : PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero) Jl. Pajajaran No. 154, Bandung 40174, Indonesia Postal Address : PO Box 1562 BD
Phone : (62-22) 6054168, 6031717, 6040606
Facsimile
(62-22) 6054185, 6003028
E-mail : pub-rel@indonesian-aerospace.com, infosales@indonesian-aerospace.com
Website : www.indonesian-aerospace.com
Branch Office
Address : PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero)
Wisma Kodel 9th Floor,
Jl. H. R. Rasuna Said, Kav. B-4,
Jakarta 12920, Indonesia
Phone : 62-21-5221513
Facsimile
62-21-5221532

Subsidiaries Office

  • IPTN North America, Inc

Office : 1035 Andover Park West, Suite B
Tukwila, Seattle, Washington 98188-7681, US
Phone : (+1 206) 575 65 07
E-mail : Gindra1702@iptnna.com
Website : http://www.iptnna.com
Product : Aerospace Parts & Services Trading Company and other High Tech Product
President : Gautama Indra Djaja



  • PT. NUSANTARA TURBIN DAN PROPULSI

    Office :

    Jalan Pajajaran 154, Kawasan Pabrik IV, Bandung 40174

    Phone : (+62 22) 603 19 85 and (+62 22) 603 18 51
    E-mail : umc@bdg.centrin.net.id
    Website : http://www.indonesian-aerospace
    Products &
    Services
    :

    Maintenance & overhaul, Manufacturing of parts & component Aero engine and industrial turbine

    President Director : Supra Dekanto

  • PT GENERAL ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY INDONESIA (GETI)

    Office : Br II, 26th Floor, Jalan Sudirman Kav 44-46, Jakarta 10210
    Phone : (+62 21) 574 71 17 and 573 05 45
    Fax : (+62 21) 574 71 17
    Website : http://www.ge.com/id/
    Products &
    Services
    :

    Trading, assembly and services on GE- medical equipment; Management consultant for medical equipment, engineering, industry and machinery; Operating and maintenance on energy equipment.

    President Director : Hermin Retnanie Sarengat
    E-mail : hermin.sarengat@geasn.ge.com

  • PT GENERAL ELECTRIC NUSANTARA TURBINE SERVICES (GENTS)

    Office :

    Jalan Pajajaran 154, Kawasan Pabrik IV, Bandung 40174

    Phone : (+62 22) 603 57 20 and (+62 22) 603 59 60
    Fax : (+62 22) 603 64 41
    Website : http://www.ge.com
    Products &
    Services
    :

    Repair & services combustion, turbine, component & spare parts for GE and Non-GE.

    President Director : Slamet Susanto
    E-mail : slamet.susanto@ps.ge.com



http://www.indonesian-aerospace.com/about/

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE VENTURES INDONESIAN AEROSPACE

Dirgantara Indonesia < > CASA (Spain)

: NC-212, CN-235
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Eurocopter (Germany) : NBO-105
Dirgantara Indonesia < > BHT (USA) : NBELL-412
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Eurocopter (France) : NAS-332
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Boeing (USA) : Qualified Boeing Bidder
Dirgantara Indonesia < > FIAS (France) : Training Facilities
Dirgantara Indonesia < > BAe (UK) : Rapier Components
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Lockheed : F-16 Components
Dirgantara Indonesia < > FZ (Belgium) : FFAR 2.75 Rocket
Dirgantara Indonesia < > AEG Telefunken (W.G.) : SUT Torpedo
Dirgantara Indonesia < > GE (USA) : UMC, Engine Overhaul CT7
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Garrett (USA) : Engine Overhaul TPE 331
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Turbomeca (France) : Engine Overhaul Turmo IVC Makila 1A
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Allison (USA) : Engine Overhaul for AL 250
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Pratt & Whitney (Canada) : Engine Overhaul PT 6
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Rolls Royce (UK) : Engine Overhaul Dart
Dirgantara Indonesia < > MHB (France) : L/G CN-235 Overhaul
Dirgantara Indonesia < > Collins (USA) : Avionics Shop

http://www.indonesian-aerospace.com/about/fr_int_coop_ventures.htm

KEDIRGANTAAN INDONESIA DALAM PERSPEKTI F SEJARAH

Lili Irahali

PENDAHULUAN
Bung Karno dalam pidato di Hari Penerbangan Nasional 9 April 1962 mengatakan : "…, tanah air kita adalah tanah air kepulauan, tanah air yang terdiri dari beribu-ribu pulau yang dipisahkan satu dari yang lain oleh samudra-samudra dan lautan-lautan. … tanah air kita ini adalah ditakdirkan oleh Allah SWT terletak antara dua benua dan dua samudra. Maka bangsa yang hidup di atas tanah air yang demikian itu hanyalah bisa menjadi satu bangsa yang kuat jikalau ia jaya bukan saja di lapangan komunikasi darat, tetapi juga di lapangan komunikasi laut dan di dalam abad 20 ini dan seterusnya di lapangan komunikasi udara."

Mencermati pernyataan Bung Karno, maka tidak berlebihan bahwa pendirian industri pesawat terbang telah diupayakan oleh bangsa ini, karena bangsa ini melihat bahwa pesawat terbang merupakan salah satu sarana perhubungan yang penting artinya bagi pembangunan ekonomi dan pertahanan nasional, khususnya, Indonesia sebagai negara kepulauan dengan kondisi geografis yang sulit ditembus tanpa bantuan sarana perhubungan yang memadai. Dari antara lain kondisi tersebut di atas, muncul pemikiran bahwa Indonesia sebagai negara kepulauan selayaknya memiliki industri bahari dan industri pesawat terbang/dirgantara. Maka dirintislah kelahiran suatu industri pesawat terbang di Indonesia.

UPAYA PEMBUATAN PESAWAT TERBANG DI INDONESIA
A. PRA KEMERDEKAAN
Sejak legenda pewayangan berkembang dalam bagian hidup kebudayaan dan masyarakat Indonesia serta munculnya figur Gatotkaca dalam kisah Bratayuda yang dikarang Mpu Sedah serta figur Hanoman dalam kisah Ramayana adalah personifikasi pemikiran manusia Indonesia untuk bisa terbang. Tampaknya keinginan ini terus terpupuk dalam jiwa dan batin manusia Indonesia sesuai dengan perkembangan jamannya.

Jaman Pemerintah kolonial Belanda tidak mempunyai program perancangan pesawat udara, namun telah melakukan serangkaian aktivitas yang berkaitan dengan pembuatan lisensi, serta evaluasi teknis dan keselamatan untuk pesawat yang dioperasikan di kawasan tropis, Indonesia. Pada tahun 1914, didirikan Bagian Uji Terbang di Surabaya dengan tugas meneliti prestasi terbang pesawat udara untuk daerah tropis. Pada tahun 1930 di Sukamiskin dibangun Bagian Pembuatan Pesawat Udara yang memproduksi pesawat-pesawat buatan Canada AVRO-AL, dengan modifikasi badan dibuat dari tripleks lokal. Pabrik ini kemudian dipindahkan ke Lapangan Udara Andir (kini Lanud Husein Sastranegara).

Pada periode itu di bengkel milik pribadi minat membuat pesawat terbang berkembang. Pada tahun 1937, delapan tahun sebelum kemerdekaan atas permintaan seorang pengusaha, serta hasil rancangan LW. Walraven dan MV. Patist putera-putera Indonesia yang dipelopori Tossin membuat pesawat terbang di salah satu bengkel di Jl. Pasirkaliki Bandung dengan nama PK.KKH. Pesawat ini sempat menggegerkan dunia penerbangan waktu itu karena kemampuannya terbang ke Belanda dan daratan Cina pergi pulang yang diterbang pilot berkebangsaan Perancis, A. Duval. Bahkan sebelum itu, sekitar tahun 1922, manusia Indonesia sudah terlibat memodifikasi sebuah pesawat yang dilakukan di sebuah rumah di daerah Cikapundung sekarang.

Pada tahun 1938 atas permintaan LW. Walraven dan MV. Patist - perancang PK.KKH - dibuat lagi pesawat lebih kecil di bengkel Jl. Kebon Kawung, Bandung.

Pesawat PK.KKH yang dibuat tahun 1937 di Bandung , di mana putera-putera Indonesia terlibat dalam proses pembuatannya.


B. PASCA KEMERDEKAAN dan PERANG KEMERDEKAAN
Segera setelah kemerdekaan, 1945, makin terbuka kesempatan bagi bangsa Indonesia untuk mewujudkan impiannya membuat pesawat terbang sesuai dengan rencana dan keinginan sendiri. Kesadaran bahwa Indonesia sebagai negara kepulauan yang luas akan selalu memerlukan perhubungan udara secara mutlak sudah mulai tumbuh sejak waktu itu, baik untuk kelancaran pemerintahan, pembangunan ekonomi dan pertahanan keamanan.

Pada masa perang kemerdekaan kegiatan kedirgantaraan yang utama adalah sebagai bagian untuk memenangkan perjuangan merebut dan mempertahankan kemerdekaan, dalam bentuk memodifikasi pesawat yang ada untuk misi-misi tempur. Tokoh pada massa ini adalah Agustinus Adisutjipto, yang merancang dan menguji terbangkan dan menerbangkan dalam pertempuran yang sesungguhnya. Pesawat Cureng/Nishikoren peninggalan Jepang yang dimodifikasi menjadi versi serang darat. Penerbangan pertamanya di atas kota kecil Tasikmalaya pada Oktober 1945.

Pada tahun 1946, di Yogyakarta dibentuk Biro Rencana dan Konstruksi pada TRI-Udara. Dengan dipelopori Wiweko Soepono, Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo, dan J. Sumarsono dibuka sebuah bengkel di bekas gudang kapuk di Magetan dekat Madiun. Dari bahan-bahan sederhana dibuat beberapa pesawat layang jenis Zogling, NWG-1 (Nurtanio Wiweko Glider). Pembuatan pesawat ini tidak terlepas dari tangan-tangan Tossin, Akhmad, dkk. Pesawat-pesawat yang dibuat enam buah ini dimanfaatkan untuk mengembangkan minat dirgantara serta dipergunakan untuk memperkenalkan dunia penerbangan kepada calon penerbang yang saat itu akan diberangkatkan ke India guna mengikuti pendidikan dan latihan.

Selain itu juga pada tahun 1948 berhasil dibuat pesawat terbang bermotor dengan mempergunakan mesin motor Harley Davidson diberi tanda WEL-X hasil rancangan Wiweko Soepono dan kemudian dikenal dengan register RI-X. Era ini ditandai dengan munculnya berbagai club aeromodeling, yang menghasilkan perintis teknologi dirgantara, yaitu Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo.

Pesawat rancangan Wi-weko Soepono diberi tanda WEL-X yang dibuat pada tahun 1948, dengan menggunakan mesin Harley Davidson

Kemudian kegiatan ini terhenti karena pecahnya pemberontakan Madiun dan agresi Belanda.

Setelah Belanda meninggalkan Indonesia usaha di atas dilanjutkan kembali di Bandung di lapangan terbang Andir - kemudian dinamakan Husein Sastranegara. Tahun 1953 kegiatan ini diberi wadah dengan nama Seksi Percobaan. Beranggotakan 15 personil, Seksi Percobaan langsung di bawah pengawasan Komando Depot Perawatan Teknik Udara, Mayor Udara Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo.

Berdasarkan rancangannya pada 1 Agustus 1954 berhasil diterbangkan prototip "Si Kumbang", sebuah pesawat serba logam bertempat duduk tunggal yang dibuat sesuai dengan kondisi negara pada waktu itu. Pesawat ini dibuat tiga buah.

Si Kumbang, sebuah pesawat serba logam bertempat duduk tunggal rancangan Nurtanio Pringgoadisuryo yang diterbangkan pada Agustus 1954.

Pada 24 April 1957, Seksi Percobaan ditingkatkan menjadi Sub Depot Penyelidikan, Percobaan & Pembuatan berdasar Surat Keputusan Kepala Staf Angkatan Udara No. 68.

Setahun kemudian, 1958 berhasil diterbangkan prototip pesawat latih dasar "Belalang 89" yang ketika diproduksi menjadi Belalang 90. Pesawat yang diproduksi sebanyak lima unit ini dipergunakan untuk mendidik calon penerbang di Akademi Angkatan Udara dan Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat. Di tahun yang sama berhasil diterbangkan pesawat oleh raga "Kunang 25". Filosofinya untuk menanamkan semangat kedirgantaraan sehingga diharapkan dapat mendorong generasi baru yang berminat terhadap pembuatan pesawat terbang.

UPAYA PENDIRIAN INDUSTRI PESAWAT TERBANG
Sesuai dengan kemajuan-kemajuan yang telah dicapai dan untuk memungkinkan berkembang lebih pesat, dengan Keputusan Menteri/Kepala Staf Angkatan Udara No. 488, 1 Agustus 1960 dibentuk Lembaga Persiapan Industri Penerbangan/LAPIP. Lembaga yang diresmikan pada 16 Desember 1961 ini bertugas menyiapkan pembangunan industri penerbangan yang mampu memberikan dukungan bagi penerbangan di Indonesia.

Mendukung tugas tersebut, pada tahun 1961 LAPIP mewakili pemerintah Indonesia dan CEKOP mewakili pemerintah Polandia mengadakan kontrak kerjasama untuk membangun pabrik pesawat terbang di Indonesia. Kontrak meliputi pembangunan pabrik , pelatihan karyawan serta produksi di bawah lisensi pesawat PZL-104 Wilga, lebih dikenal Gelatik. Pesawat yang diproduksi 44 unit ini kemudian digunakan untuk dukungan pertanian, angkut ringan dan aero club.

Dalam kurun waktu yang hampir bersamaan, tahun 1965 melalui SK Presiden RI - Presiden Soekarno, didirikan Komando Pelaksana Proyek Industri Pesawat Terbang (KOPELAPIP) - yang intinya LAPIP - ; serta PN. Industri Pesawat Terbang Berdikari.

Pada bulan Maret 1966, Nurtanio gugur ketika menjalankan pengujian terbang, sehingga untuk menghormati jasa beliau maka LAPIP menjadi LIPNUR/Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio. Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya LIPNUR memproduksi pesawat terbang latih dasar LT-200, serta membangun bengkel after-sales-service, maintenance, repair & overhaul.

Pada tahun 1962, berdasar SK Presiden RI - Presiden Soekarno, didirikan jurusan Teknik Penerbangan ITB sebagai bagian dari Bagian Mesin. Pelopor pendidikan tinggi Teknik Penerbangan adalah Oetarjo Diran dan Liem Keng Kie. Kedua tokoh ini adalah bagian dari program pengiriman siswa ke luar negeri (Eropa dan Amerika) oleh Pemerintah RI yang berlangsung sejak tahun 1951. Usaha-usaha mendirikan industri pesawat terbang memang sudah disiapkan sejak 1951, ketika sekelompok mahasiswa Indonesia dikirim ke Belanda untuk belajar konstruksi pesawat terbang dan kedirgantaraan di TH Delft atas perintah khusus Presiden RI pertama. Pengiriman ini berlangsung hingga tahun 1954. Dilanjutkan tahun 1954 - 1958 dikirim pula kelompok mahasiswa ke Jerman, dan antara tahun 1958 - 1962 ke Cekoslowakia dan Rusia.

Perjalanan ini bertaut dengan didirikannya Lembaga Persiapan Industri Pesawat Terbang (LAPIP) pada 1960, pendirian bIdang Studi Teknik Penerbangan di ITB pada 1962, dibentuknya DEPANRI (Dewan Penerbangan dan Antariksa Republik Indonesia) pada 1963. Kemudian ditindaklanjuti dengan diadakannya proyek KOPELAPIP (Komando Pelaksana Persiapan Industri Pesawat Tebang) pada Maret 1965. Bekerjasama dengan Fokker, KOPELAPIP tak lain merupakan proyek pesawat terbang komersial.

Sementara itu upaya-upaya lain untuk merintis industri pesawat terbang telah dilakukan pula oleh putera Indonesia - B.J. Habibie - di luar negeri sejak tahun 1960an sampai 1970an. Sebelum ia dipanggil pulang ke Indonesia untuk mendapat tugas yang lebih luas. Di tahun 1961, atas gagasan BJ. Habibie diselenggarakan Seminar Pembangunan I se Eropa di Praha, salah satu adalah dibentuk kelompok Penerbangan yang di ketuai BJ. Habibie.

PENDIRIAN INDUSTRI PESAWAT TERBANG
A. PERINTISAN
Ada lima faktor menonjol yang menjadikan IPTN berdiri, yaitu : ada orang-orang yang sejak lama bercita-cita membuat pesawat terbang dan mendirikan industri pesawat terbang di Indonesia; ada orang-orang Indonesia yang menguasai ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi membuat dan membangun industri pesawat terbang; adanya orang yang menguasai ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang berdedikasi tinggi menggunakan kepandaian dan ketrampilannya bagi pembangunan industri pesawat terbang; adanya orang yang mengetahui cara memasarkan produk pesawat terbang secara nasional maupun internasional; serta adanya kemauan pemerintah.7)

Perpaduan yang serasi faktor-faktor di atas menjadikan IPTN berdiri menjadi suatu industri pesawat terbang dengan fasilitas yang memadai.

Awalnya seorang pria kelahiran Pare-Pare, Sulawesi Selatan, 25 Juni 1936, Bacharudin Jusuf Habibie. Ia menimba pendidikan di Perguruan Tinggi Teknik Aachen, jurusan Konstruksi Pesawat Terbang, kemudian bekerja di sebuah industri pesawat terbang di Jerman sejak 1965.

Menjelang mencapai gelar doktor, tahun 1964, ia berkehendak kembali ke tanah air untuk berpartisipasi dalam pembangunan Indonesia. Tetapi pimpinan KOPELAPIP menyarankan Habibie untuk menggali pengalaman lebih banyak, karena belum ada wadah industri pesawat terbang. Tahun 1966 ketika Menteri Luar Negeri, Adam Malik berkunjung ke Jerman beliau meminta Habibie, menemuinya dan ikut memikirkan usaha-usaha pembangunan di Indonesia.

Menyadari bahwa usaha pendirian industri tersebut tidak bisa dilakukan sendiri., maka dengan tekad bulat mulai merintis penyiapan tenaga terampil untuk suatu saat bekerja pada pembangunan industri pesawat terbang di Indonesia yang masih dalam angan-angan. Habibie segera berinisiatif membentuk sebuah tim. Dari upaya tersebut berhasil dibentuk sebuah tim sukarela yang kemudian berangkat ke Jerman untuk bekerja dan menggali ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi di industri pesawat terbang Jerman tempat Habibie bekerja. Awal tahun 1970 tim ini mulai bekerja di HFB/MBB untuk melaksanakan awal rencana tersebut.

Pada saat bersamaan usaha serupa dirintis oleh Pertamina selaku agen pembangunan. Kemajuan dan keberhasilan Pertamina yang pesat di tahun 1970 an memberi fungsi ganda kepada perusahaan ini, yaitu sebagai pengelola industri minyak negara sekaligus sebagai agen pembangunan nasional. Dengan kapasitas itu Pertamina membangun industri baja Krakatau Steel. Dalam kapasitas itu, Dirut Pertamina, Ibnu Sutowo (alm) memikirkan cara mengalihkan teknologi dari negara maju ke Indonesia secara konsepsional yang berkerangka nasional. Alih teknologi harus dilakukan secara teratur, tegasnya.

Awal Desember 1973, terjadi pertemuan antara Ibnu Sutowo dan BJ. Habibie di Dusseldorf - Jerman. Ibnu Sutowo menjelaskan secara panjang lebar pembangunan Indonesia, Pertamina dan cita-cita membangun industri pesawat terbang di Indonesia. Dari pertemuan tersebut BJ. Habibie ditunjuk sebagai penasehat Direktur Utama Pertamina dan kembali ke Indonesia secepatnya.

Awal Januari 1974 langkah pasti ke arah mewujudkan rencana itu telah diambil. Di Pertamina dibentuk divisi baru yang berurusan dengan teknologi maju dan teknologi penerbangan. Dua bulan setelah pertemuan Dusseldorf, 26 Januari 1974 BJ. Habibie diminta menghadap Presiden Soeharto. Pada pertemuan tersebut Presiden mengangkat Habibie sebagai penasehat Presiden di bidang teknologi. Pertemuan tersebut merupakan hari permulaan misi Habibie secara resmi.

Melalui pertemuan-pertemuan tersebut di atas melahirkan Divisi Advanced Technology & Teknologi Penerbangan Pertamina (ATTP) yang kemudian menjadi cikal bakal BPPT. Dan berdasarkan Instruksi Presiden melalui Surat Keputusan Direktur Pertamina dipersiapkan pendirian industri pesawat terbang.

September 1974, Pertamina - Divisi Advanced Technology menandatangani perjanjian dasar kerjasama lisensi dengan MBB - Jerman dan CASA - Spanyol untuk memproduksi BO-105 dan C-212.

B. PENDIRIAN
Ketika upaya pendirian mulai menampakkan bentuknya - dengan nama Industri Pesawat Terbang Indonesia/IPIN di Pondok Cabe, Jakarta - timbul permasalahan dan krisis di tubuh Pertamina yang berakibat pula pada keberadaan Divisi ATTP, proyek serta programnya - industri pesawat terbang. Akan tetapi karena Divisi ATTP dan proyeknya merupakan wahana guna pembangunan dan mempersiapkan tinggal landas bagi bangsa Indonesia pada Pelita VI, Presiden menetapkan untuk meneruskan pembangunan industri pesawat terbang dengan segala konsekuensinya.

Maka berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah No. 12, tanggal 15 April 1975 dipersiapkan pendirian industri pesawat terbang. Melalui peraturan ini, dihimpun segala aset, fasilitas dan potensi negara yang ada yaitu : - aset Pertamina, Divisi ATTP yang semula disediakan untuk pembangunan industri pesawat terbang dengan aset Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio/LIPNUR, AURI - sebagai modal dasar pendirian industri pesawat terbang Indonesia. Penggabungan aset LIPNUR ini tidak lepas dari peran Bpk. Ashadi Tjahjadi selaku pimpinan AURI yang mengenal BJ. Habibie sejak tahun 1960an.Dengan modal ini diharapkan tumbuh sebuah industri pesawat terbang yang mampu menjawab tantangan jaman.

Tanggal 28 April 1976 berdasar Akte Notaris No. 15, di Jakarta didirikan PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio dengan Dr, BJ. Habibie selaku Direktur Utama. Selesai pembangunan fisik yang diperlukan untuk berjalannya program yang telah dipersiapkan, pada 23 Agustus 1976 Presiden Soeharto meresmikan industri pesawat terbang ini. Dalam perjalanannya kemudian, pada 11 Oktober 1985, PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio berubah menjadi PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara atau IPTN.

Dari tahun 1976 cakrawala baru tumbuhnya industri pesawat terbang modern dan lengkap di Indonesia di mulai. Di periode inilah semua aspek prasarana, sarana, SDM, hukum dan regulasi serta aspek lainnya yang berkaitan dan mendukung keberadaan industri pesawat terbang berusaha ditata. Selain itu melalui industri ini dikembangkan suatu konsep alih/transformasi teknologi dan industri progresif yang ternyata memberikan hasil optimal dalam penguasaan teknologi kedirgantaraan dalam waktu relatif singkat, 24 tahun.

CN-235 dan N250, hasil penguasaan teknologi putera-puteri Indonesia yang dirintis BJ. Habibie

IPTN berpandangan bahwa alih teknologi harus berjalan secara integral dan lengkap mencakup hardware, software serta brainware yang berintikan pada faktor manusia. Yaitu manusia yang berkeinginan, berkemampuan dan berpen- dirian dalam ilmu, teori dan keahlian untuk melaksanakannya dalam bentuk kerja. Berpijak pada hal itu IPTN menerapkan filosofi transformasi teknologi "BERMULA DI AKHIR, BERAKHIR DI AWAL". Suatu falsafah yang menyerap teknologi maju secara progresif dan bertahap dalam suatu proses yang integral dengan berpijak pada kebutuhan obyektif Indonesia. Melalui falsafah ini teknologi dapat dikuasai secara utuh menyeluruh tidak semata-mata materinya, tetapi juga kemampuan dan keahliannya. Selain itu filosofi ini memegang prinsip terbuka, yaitu membuka diri terhadap setiap perkembangan dan kemajuan yang dicapai negara lain.

Filosofi ini mengajarkan bahwa dalam membuat pesawat terbang tidak harus dari komponen dulu, tapi langsung belajar dari akhir suatu proses (bentuk pesawat jadi), kemudian mundur lewat tahap dan fasenya untuk membuat komponen. Tahap alih teknologi terbagi dalam :
  • Tahap penggunaan teknologi yang sudah ada/lisensi,
  • Tahap integrasi teknologi,
  • Tahap pengembangan teknologi,
  • Tahap penelitian dasar

    Sasaran tahap pertama, adalah penguasaan kemampuan manufacturing, sekaligus memilih dan menentukan jenis pesawat yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan dalam negeri yang hasil penjualannya dimanfaatkan menambah kemampuan berusaha perusahaan. Di sinilah dikenal metode "progressif manufacturing program". Tahap kedua dimaksudkan untuk menguasai kemampuan rancangbangun sekaligus manufacturing. Tahap ketiga, dimaksudkan meningkatkan kemampuan rancangbangun secara mandiri. Sedang tahap keempat dimaksudkan untuk menguasai ilmu-ilmu dasar dalam rangka mendukung pengembangan produk-produk baru yang unggul.

    PARADIGMA BARU DAN NAMA BARU
    Selama 24 tahun IPTN relatif berhasil melakukan transformasi teknologi, sekaligus menguasai teknologi kedirgantaraan dalam hal disain, pengembangan, serta pembuatan pesawat komuter regional kelas kecil dan sedang.

    Dalam rangka menghadapi dinamika jaman serta sistem pasar global, IPTN meredifinisi diri ke dalam "DIRGANTARA 2000" dengan melakukan orientasi bisnis, dan strategi baru menghadapi perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi. Untuk itu IPTN melaksanakan program retsrukturisasi meliputi reorientasi bisnis, serta penataan kembali sumber daya manusia yang menfokuskan diri pada pasar dan misi bisnis.

    Kini dalam masa "survive" IPTN mencoba menjual segala kemampuannya di area engineering - dengan menawarkan jasa disain sampai pengujian -, manufacturing part, komponen serta tolls pesawat terbang dan non-pesawat terbang, serta jasa pelayanan purna jual.

    Seiring dengan itu IPTN merubah nama menjadi PT. DIRGANTARA INDONESIA atau Indonesian Aerospace/IAe yang diresmikan Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid, 24 Agustus 2000 di Bandung.

    Kita berkeyakinan bahwa industri ini harus terus mengikuti dinamika perkembangan jaman dan perubahan, agar upaya yang dirintis para pendahulu ini bisa tetap lestari serta memberi manfaat optimal bagi generasi mendatang. Untuk itu kita tetap berpijak pada sejarah.

    ***

    Biodata
    Lili Irahali
    Lahir di Indramayu, 15 Agustus 1955. Supervisor Komunikasi dan Informasi - Sekretaris Perusahaan, Spesialis Komunikasi bekerja di PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (Indonesian Aerospace) Bandung. Dosen Luar Biasa Pendidikan Ahli Komunikasi Terapan Fak.Ilmu Komunikasi - Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung. Penulis, editor buku kumpulan karangan Beberapa Pemikiran Hukum Memasuki Abad XXI, Mengenang Prof. Dr. Komar Kantaatmadja, SH., LLM.;Prospek dan Pelaksanaan Arbitrase di Indonesia; Fragmen IPTN sampai dengan Dirgantara Indonesia 1983 - 2000.

  • http://www.indonesian-aerospace.com/book/a.htm
  • B.J. Habibie and E. de Guzman






    Von Karman Lecture, 18th Congress of the International Council of The Aeronautical Sciences Beijing, People's Republic of Chine, 20-25 September 1992*/

    INTRODUCTION

    CN-235 is a 44 passenger aircraft that since 1987 has been delivered to commercial airline and military services in many countries in the world, among others for commuter and feeder routes in Indonesia. It was conceived in 1978 and developed jointly by CASA (Construcciones Aeronauticas SA) of the Kingdom of Spain and presently known Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN) of the Republic of Indonesia with establishment of a joint company, AIRTECH. This company was founded on October 17, 1979. The president of the company is the President and Chief Executive Officer of PT.IPTN, and the President and Chief Executive of CASA serves as the Vice President.
    At its conception, the basic configuration of the CN-235 aircraft to be developed will accommodate 35 passengers and will be powered by twin turboprop engines.
    CASA was founded in 1932 and has manufactured many aircraft and helicopters of foreign design, including Northrop F-5 fighter and MBB BO-105. CASA's own Project Office has designed several aircraft under-contract to the Spanish Air Ministry, including C-212 Aviocar and C-101 Aviojet trainer. As a full member of Airbus Industries, it also manufactures horizontal tail surfaces, landing gear doors and forward passenger doors for the Airbus A300/310/320 family of wide bodied transport aircraft, and a fuselage section of the 320. CASA has also been involved with other international contracts with other aircraft manufactures. To date CASA has seven factories.

    The Indonesian Aircraft Industry, PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN) was founded in 1976. It was established in parallel with the corresponding industrial support institutions related to manpower, research and development in suitable stages. In this conjunction, the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPP Teknologi) and the Center for science, Research and Technology (PUSPIPTEK) were found in 1978. The Laboratory for Structural Testing and Laboratory for Aerodynamics, Gas-dynamics and Vibration were established within BPP Teknologi at the promises of PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, featuring modern testing facilities suitable for supporting advanced and aeronautical industries.

    Looking back into its development, we feel that we are very proud of being able to offer the world a product of advanced technology through international cooperation, which has been farsightedly promoted by Theodore von Karman. It is with this very spirit in mind that we would like to share with the distinguished and knowledgeable participants of the present ICAS Congress the philosophy, motivation and experiences of this international endeavour.

    In this international cooperation, not only there are gaps in technology status, but two different cultural background and economic motivations are present. Therefore, it is felt fitting to elaborate the details as it may appear for individual country, as well as to elaborate factors that are common to both.

    CN-235 AS INSTRUMENT FOR THE SPANISH QUEST FOR ENTERING THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET FOR CIVIL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFTS AND THE INDONESIAN QUEST FOR INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION

    When the idea of cooperative venture to develop a marketable, civil transport aircraft was offered by Indonesia, accompanied by equal share and the availability of capital to Spain for the related transfer of technology to Indonesia, the idea becomes apparent, that a mutually beneficial cooperation between a European country representing the North and a developing one in the orient representing the South is possible and beneficial not only for the technology transfer of the developing Indonesia, but also for the economic interest of Spain.

    The international cooperation that has taken place in the CN-235 program is partially attributed to the industrial transformation scheme adopted in the Indonesia National Development Plan. When in 1974 the Government of Indonesia decided to boost the development of the aircraft industry as part of its national development, a strategy for industrial transformation was progressively formulated. Indonesia's general policy for national development is focussed on the three main goals of increasing basic capital, utilizing resources optimally for self reliance, and applying science and technology in conformity with demand and priority. The establishment of the presently known IPTN marked the initiation of the strategy for industrial transformation. This strategy, reformulated in the inaugural address of the first author as an honorary fellow a DGLR, in essence is aimed to develop the technological capability of Indonesia as a backbone for its national development appropriate to its socio-cultural setting in the modern world by starting from the end product and ending with its generic elements. The ultimate objective of the industrial transformation strategy is transforming the nation from an agriculturally based society into an industrial society, and additionally, for IPTN, to achieve world wide recognition as a viable aircraft manufacturing company. The strategy for industrial transformation has been formulated in four phases, in which CN-235 program is part of the second phase, i.e. :

      Phase One : Technology acquisition through the transfer of existing technology to achieve an added value process, capitalizing on the acquisition of manufacturing capability of advanced technology product already in the market. The aim of this phase is to attain and develop technological ability with to the design, technical aspects and the production of advanced products which have already been developed by advanced industrial countries;

      Phase Two : Integration of acquired and existing technology into the design and production of completely new products to be introduced in the international market. This second phase emphasized the ability to design including the ability to integrate and optimize the design of components for a new system. The capability to test newly designed products is also developed in this stage.

      Phase Three : Development of existing and new technology into the design and production of completely new products to be introduced in the international market. During this third phase, innovations will be introduced, and new technologies are created to produce the latest and most modern products based on market needs;

      Phase Four : Acquisition of large scale basic research capability and the implementation of basic research as key elements in the introduction of competitive generic technologies.

    Along with it, nine vehicles of industrial transformation have been identified. These are aeronautics and aerospace industry, maritime and shipbuilding industry, land transformation industry, telecommunication and electronic industry, energy industry, engineering industry, agricultural and heavy equipment industry, defense system industry, and other industries which may grow as a consequence of the growth of the above mentioned industries.

    Aircraft technology as the most advanced technology has been considered to be economically, culturally and technically appropriate to be chosen as the spearhead of the industrial transformation initiative. It was conceived already in 1976, that reliance to natural resources is only temporary, and Indonesia cannot escape from relying on its large population as the most appropriate resources. High technology and human resources are essentially identical, and the development of its potential can no more be delayed.

    The application of the strategy for industrial transformation in the aircraft industry is depicted in continued. The first phase is carried out by the production under license of Spanish CASA C-212 Aviocar under progressive manufacturing scheme. The completion of this scheme market the beginning of the second phase. CN-235 Program carried out by IPTN in cooperation with CASA through the joint venture company Aircraft Technology Industries (Airtech) constitutes the second phase of this general strategy for industrial transformation for Indonesia in the framework of Indonesia national development. The conception and the design of the aircraft is carried out through international cooperation.

    Most recently, in 1989, based on the successful progress of the implementation of the industrial transformation strategy, the Agency for the Strategic Industries has been created by a presidential decree. Under the decree, the State Minister for Research and Technology is responsible for the creation, management, and development of the state-owned companies which the President considers strategic. The Minister performs this function in his capacity as chairman of this Agency. Ten state owned companies, including IPTN, have been considered to be strategic, and all of them represent the nine vehicles for industrial transformation, These strategic industries are expected to serve as spearhead for establishing industrial excellence of other national industries.

    MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVES OF CN-235 PROGRAM

    In the late seventies, the growth of the world market demand for a third level aircraft transport in the 30 to 40 passenger range was viewed to be very promising. In the domestic market, such perspective has been reflected by the large air transportation need commensurate with the national development plan, as well as the need for large number of military transport aircraft for national security.

    Independently from each other, CASA and IPTN proceeded to study possible aircraft design configuration to meet this world market demand, including the possibility to stretch the CASA C-212.

    Motivated by such need, in October 1979 CASA and IPTN agreed tp established a joint development program to design develop, manufacture and market a commuter aircraft taking advantage of the design philosophy of CASA C-212 and other military transport aircraft.

    Consequently CASA and IPTN have established the Aircraft Technologies Industries, abbreviated as AIRTECH, to undertake as its first joint program the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of a new aircraft. As a base line, similar general philosophy of the CASA C-212 would be of advantage, but dimensions will be adopted to market demands and new engines available in the future. The aircraft shall be certified under FAA 25 rules for civil operation and similar rules but with the corresponding exceptions for military operation.

    PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

    A first visit to Madrid of a technical team from IPTN was made in November 1979, followed by a joint meeting in Bandung, January 1980. It was then decided to establish the first phase of the development program (March - December 1980).

    The first part of the first (from March to July 1980) of this project has been carried out and concluded in Madrid - Getafe by a joint working team of CASA and IPTN.

    Various alternative aircraft configuration have been studied in order to meet actual market demands; among these alternatives were :

    Alternative 1 "Stretched" version of the C-212

  • Same cross section of C-212
  • Fuselage length increased to admit 30 passenger, 3-abreast
  • Increased wing area
  • Turboprop engine of 1200 to 1300 SHP class
  • Landing gear non-retractable. Similar philosophy of C-212
  • Intended high commonality with C212

    Alternative 2 Wide body with rectangular cross section
  • Fuselage similar to the C-212, with enlarged dimensions
  • Cross section permitting 4-abreast and 88" pallets
  • Turboprop engine of 1500 to 1700 SHP class
  • Landing gear retractable/non-retractable
  • Growth capability

    Alternative 3 Wide body with truncated circular cross section
  • Cross section permitting 4 abreast and 88" pallets
  • Identical passenger capability to the Alternative No. 1
  • Less cargo flexibility than the Alternative No. 2
  • Possibility of cabin pressurization
  • Turboprop engine of 1500 to 1700 SHP class
  • Landing gear retractable
  • Growth capability

    Associated with each alternative several versions are considered. Finally it was decided to adopt one version of the last alternative as the basic design configuration.

    The initiation of CN-235 Program by IPTN in cooperation with CASA through the joint venture company Aircraft Technology Industries (Airtech) will serve to integrate the technology acquired in the first stage as well as the existing one to produce a new product to be offered to the domestic and world market. Following the strategy for industrial transformation, this phase has been manifested in a joint venture with Spain that allowed IPTN's, engineers and technicians to actively take pail in the design of a new aircraft, the CN-235. To this end, the cooperation with CASA in the Airtech joint venture company was created on equal partnership basis. The work share of both partners has been formulated such that IPTN manufactures the interior, rear center fuselage, tail unit and outer wing, while CASA is in charge of the nose fuselage, center wing and center fuselage.

    The first phase of the CN-235 program, i.e. pre-design and market study, was carried out at the end of 1979, while the second phase, i.e. design, tools manufacturing, detailed parts manufacturing, final assembly and first flight, was initiated in 1980 and completed in 1983.

    On September 10, 1983, the roll out of the first two prototypes took place simultaneously at Getafe (for the P-1 prototype Elena) and at Bandung (for the P-2 prototype Tetuko), attended and dedicated by His Royal Highness King Carlos of the Kingdom of Spain, in Madrid and His Excellency President Soeharto of the, Republic of Indonesia in Bandung. The maiden flight of both prototypes took place on November 11, 1983 (CASA) and December 30th, 1983 (IPTN).

    The third phase comprises certification and first delivery. In June 1986, it was certified by the Spanish Indonesian Joint Certification Board, and more significantly, on December 3, 1986 by the American Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).

    In September 1984, one year after the roll-out of the first prototype, orders for the new plane already amounted to several dozen units at a unit cost of US $ 6 million. The domestic market has provided most orders, complemented by the strong support of the Indonesian Government to create a conducive market in concert with the policy of establishing the Indonesian Aircraft Industry as a vehicle for industrial transformation, thus boosting the growth of CN-235 sales on the Indonesian domestic market and its eventual entry into the international competition.

    DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

    The CN-235 aircraft features a wide body concept, with ramp door to facilitate all purpose transport suitable for developing as well as industrialized countries. It has a four abreast single aisle seating arrangement. Although 35 passenger seats was considered as its basic configuration, operational aircraft can accommodate up to some 44 passengers. The philosophy underlying the design of CN-235 is consistent with the "big aircraft in a small plane" design philosophy adopted by IPTN at the outset. The selection of CASA C-212 as the type of aircraft to be developed at IPTN was made as a realization of this philosophy. By "big aircraft" philosophy, the transfer of aircraft technology to IPTN will simultaneously enhance further development in the design and manufacture of larger aircraft.

    Prevailing considerations in the design philosophy of CN-235 can be summarized as follows. First, market pull considerations. As an islands continent, which stretches as distant as 3000 miles from west most point to east most one and 1000 miles from north to south, Indonesia has to rely on aircraft and ships for its transportation. In addition, as the fifth largest nation in terms of its population, Indonesia's large population which has been growing from 120 millions in 1976 to 180 millions in 1992 emphasized the need of commuter and medium air transportation for its daily economic routine. In addition, the mere geographic considerations requires the need of national security through air support, such as transportation of logistics and maritime patrol.

    It is with these considerations in mind that Indonesia has a strong confidence in embarking upon an aircraft development program, which then can rely on its domestic market prospects as a basis to ' enter into the world market. The question is not whether it has to be done, but how can that be effectively carried out, in terms of technology, economic and socio-cultural aspects. To this end, the strategy for industrial transformation through four stages utilizing nine vehicles is at hand. Additional aspects that should be taken into consideration in the design of marketable commuter aircraft is its versatility. Accessibility for cargo transport, such as for containers transport would be of utmost importance. Convenience in conversion from cargo to passenger bus-port, as well as for other utility transport (ambulance, search and rescue, forest fire fighting, artificial rain, etc) would be of great advantage. It is therefore decided that the aircraft to be designed should have the capability to transport containers effectively and efficiently, hence its wide body configuration, and it has to be highly convertible from passenger to cargo mode. The wide body configuration is also regarded as an attractive feature for commuter passengers transferring to and from long haul flights utilizing wide body intercontinental transporters.

    Thus for Indonesia, CN-235 is indeed a vehicle for industrial transformation. It serves to meet the need for Indonesia for domestic commuter and short range transportation. Its development will enable Indonesia to embark upon its systematic and accelerated ways of technological development, which in essence is similar to the development of manpower resources as major capital for sustainable and integrated economic development. It is an agent for building a nation. At the same time the economic feasibility of CN-235 program relies on domestic market as a means for entering the highly competitive international market in the era of globalization. The prevailing labor market in Indonesia is also considered to be a competitive factor. It is also understood that CN-235 would be attractive for military transport and national security operations, thus enhancing its market penetration potential, in particular due to its capability to transport containers efficiently and effectively. In fact, economically it can be regarded to be very competitive to other existing military transport aircraft.

    In the design, attempts have been made to combine several advantageous features of existing transport aircraft, hence reducing the required time for developing new aircraft in the market but still have great probability of meeting certification requirements. Therefore, its development time is impressively short, with very minimal wind-tunnel testing effort. However, its flight testing program requires extended time, although such case was dictated also by the utilization only two flying prototypes. Nevertheless, altogether one may conclude that the effort was a complete success.

    As a result of the extensive flight test effort, aircraft stability can be achieved. Drag minimization effort has been carried out, since with the adoption of the prevailing tail configuration, such effort was anticipated to be mandatory. Drag and weight minimization effort carried out for the development of the series aircraft can also be regarded as successful. Some 10% of the weight can be taken off the prototype aircraft, and the aircraft has been rated as easy to handle by Aviation Week and Space Technology test pilot.

    COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK

    It was agreed to commit 50-50 share in the joint project; IPTN has 50% share of the investment capital and CASA held the remaining 50% share of total investment of US $ 100 million. Included in the CASA share is the cost for technology transfer to IPTN. Feasibility study and design work were carried out immediately in the months that followed; preliminary design was initiated in January 1980. In the design, development and certification work as well as in the co-production of the aircraft, both parties share equal responsibilities and division of work shares are clearly defined. The design and development of the aircraft have been carried out at both premises, i.e. at CASA facilities at Getafe (Madrid), Spain and IPTN facilities at Bandung, Indonesia. In some work packages, IPTN engineers are dispatched to Spain in a joint team, and in similar fashion, in some other work packages, CASA engineers are working jointly with IP'IN engineers at IPTN premises in Indonesia. In the cooperation, a scheme for technology transfer has also been agreed. Coordination meetings have taken place monthly at either premises at alternate months. In addition, for the joint certification of the aircraft, both in Spain and Indonesia by their respective DGAC (Directorate General of Aircraft Communication) and internationally by FAA, a joint certification board (JCB) has been established, comprising all parties involved in the certification process. Close communication and cooperation between JCB and the working team of the project has been maintained.

    The development of CN-235 aircraft have produced several versions thus far, among others CN-235-10, CN-235-100 and CN-235-200, all carried out jointly between CASA and IPTN.

    Marketing of the aircraft are also arranged jointly. CASA markets the aircraft in the Americas and Europe, and IPTN in Asia, with other markets shared as appropriate.

    Some 65% of the aircraft is built in Bandung and 35% in Getafe, a ratio that remains constant regardless of whether the aircraft is rolled out in Indonesia or in Spain. Because of this manufacturing ratio, and the highly competitive wage rates-paid in Bandung a fraction of current Western hourly rates - the CN-235 can be marketed at an attractive price.

    Airtech and CN-235 made their first debut at Le Bourget Air-show in Paris in 1981. Mock up of the aircraft was exhibited and the relevant details of the aircraft were presented. Sales contract for the production aircraft were signed, among others with Merpati Nusantara Airlines of Indonesia, which has opted for a firm commitment for the purchase of 15 aircraft. In the meantime, a Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by Airtech and General Electric for the utilization of GE CT7 series turboprop engine for the propulsion of the CN-235 aircraft.

    The flight test series were carried out in Spain and Indonesia. In the setting up of the flight test facilities and personnel at IPTN, cooperation has also been established with the Institute for Flight Mechanics of DLR (then DFVLR) in Braunschweig. After intensive flight testing for more than two years, in Spain using P-I prototype and in Indonesia utilizing the P-2 prototype, Spanish and Indonesian certification was received on 20 June 1986, and type certification by FAA (parts 25 and 121) was granted on 3 December 1986. Static and Fatigue testing have been and are carried out at the Laboratory for Structural Testing (LUK-BPP Teknologi) at PUSPI PTEK premises in Serpong.

    SOME HIGHTLIGHTS OF CN-235 TECHNICAL DETAILS

    The CN-235 carries up to 44 passengers at a cruising speed of 454 km/hr over a maximum range of 759 km with a maximum payload of 4,200 kgs, making it ideal for inter-island operation. The CN-235's wing span is 25.8 m., its length 21.4 m. and height 8.17 m. The two GE CT7-7A 1,700 HP engines have a very low fuel consumption.

    MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF CN-235 100
    MAIN DIMENSION
    SPAN:25.81 M
    LENGTH:21.40 M
    WING AREA:60.00 M2
    WIDTH (OUTSIDE):2.90 M
    HEIGHT (OUTSIDE):7.98 M
    ENGINE:TWO G.E. CT7-9C
    POWER AVAILABLE
    (INSTALLED)
    :A.P.R 1870 SHP
    AVAILABLE UP TO 33C, S.L-STATIC
    TAKE OFF. 1750 SHP
    AVAILABLE UP TO 41C, S.L-STATIC
    MAX. CONTINUOUS, 1750 SHP
    AVAILABLE UP TO 32C, 120 KTAS
    MAX. CRUISE, 1700 SHP
    AVAILABLE UP TO 14C, 220 KTAS
    PROPELLERS:TWO H.S 14 RF-21, 4 BLADED PROPELLERS
    11 FEET DUAMETER
    1384 MAX. RPM.

    CN-235 has a pressurized cabin and has the ability for short take-off and landing (STOL), and can land on unprepared airstrips. CN-235 is equipped with ramp and cargo doors, high wings and retractable landing gears.

    In the design requirements and objectives of the twin turboprop CN-235, it was conceived that the 35-40 seater plane is intended to operate in mountainous or rough areas and to facilitate inter-island communications. It can take off and land on short airstrips and has a rear ramp door appropriate for mixed transport (passengers and freight). Turboprop CT7-7A engines from General Electric are selected for their reliability, easy maintenance and low fuel consumption. The engines, control and communication circuits are made in the United States and Europe, whereas the airframe is fully manufactured in Indonesia. IPTN plans to make 100% of the airframe components. There are several versions, civilian (passengers or freight) and military.

    First production aircraft made its initial flight on 19 August 1986. The first IPTN series production aircraft in Indonesia was delivered to Merpati Nusantara Airlines on December 15, 1986. CN-235 aircraft are now flying regularly in Indonesia connecting cities such as Bandung, Jakarta, Palangkaraya, and other cities in Eastern Indonesia. Firm orders for CN-235 totaled 133 by May 1989, 59 Civil and 74 Military. Twenty two of these are for Spanish customers including two for the Air Force, equipped as VIP transports, and four for Binter Canarias. Four others are for Saudi Arabia, eight for the French Armee de I'Air, one each for the Equadorian Army and Navy, two for the Botswana Defense Force, one for the Panamanian National Guard, seven for the Moroccan Air Force and very good for short flights less than 385 km. Its width two for the US National Safety Council. The other 85 allows it to carry containers, or even aircraft engines are for the Indonesian customers (Deraya 11, Merpati Nusantara Airlines 15, Pelita 10, Indonesian Air Force 32, and Indonesian Navy 18, including six in ASW/maritime patrol configuration). Based on the test flight good landing gears. performed by Aviation Week and Space Technology, the handling of the CN-235 aircraft has been cited as very easy. The President Director of Merpati Nusantara also commented that the aircraft is very economical to operate.

    The performance of the aircraft can be illustrated through the following comments. After flying the CN-235, R. Ropelewski, a test pilot, reports for Aviation Week & Space Technology (April 1987) that it is a good plane. Although slightly less rapid (by some 20 km/h) than its competitors (the Canadian Dash 8, the French-Italian ATR-42 and the Embraer from Brazil) because of its rather wide body, it is considered to be very good for short flights less than 385 km. Its width allows it to carry containers, or even aircraft engines like that of Mirage 2000 fighter which can only be loaded loaded on board a Boeing 747 or a DC-10. According to the same pilot, the CN-235 is a strong aircraft, with good landing gears.

    Initial production of CN-235-10s have General Electric CT7-7A engines, while the later versions, CN 235-100s and CN-235-200s are powered by General Electric CT7-9C engines.

    FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF CN-235

    Both CASA and IPTN are committed to continuing its technology development programs. This is essential since the aircraft industry must be able

    to meet diverse customer technological requirements for various aircraft missions. In this respect, IPTN continues to move forward in order to be able to meet such requirements. At this moment, IPTN's Flight Test Center is carrying out test of the CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft ( MPA) version.

    The former CN-235 P2 prototype currently used as a flying test bed is undergoing flight test programs with simulated maritime patrol external configurations. The configurations are achieved by installing a dummy long nose for Electronic 'Support Measures (ESM) and forward looking infra red (FLIR) radar. The objective of these tests is to verify that the CN-235 MPA version is able to perform a non-stop six-hour maritime surveillance. This means that the aircraft will have greater power and longer flight endurance. Such features are mandatory to the maritime patrol type aircraft.

    Moreover, the testing is also intended to determine the effects of aerodynamic characteristics and handling quality of the MPA configuration aircraft. Hopefully, the CN-235 MPA version will meet all the requirements as defined by military and customer specifications.

    In conjunction with this program, the CN-235 P-2 is also undertaking heavy weight test programs. These programs investigate the airworthiness aspects of the aircraft whose weight is to be increased from 14,400 kgs. to 15,100 kgs., and ultimately to 15,750 kgs., with the flight endurance of non-stop six hours. With this improvement, it is hoped that the CN-235 MPA version will be able to perform maritime surveillance more effectively and for a longer duration.

    The initial phase of the heavy weight test program indicated that the handling quality of the CN-235 MPA version satisfies the requirements.

    This signifies that it is in accordance with expectation. The success of this test will make IPTN more aggressive in launching its marketing efforts by offering the CN-235 MPA to other states and customers, including the Indonesian Armed Forces.

    From the technology view point, the first objective to be achieved in these MPA programs is increased mastery of electronic technology, because the MPA version of the CN-235 is equipped with Advanced Mission Avionics (AMA). The sophistication of AMA design and integration will be jointly carried out by IPTN and Boeing. Through this program, it is hoped that IPTN will be able to advance its capacity to absorb the state of the art technology.

    The second objective is increased test technology, where IPTN gains new and valuable experience because the tests of the heavy weight and maritime patrol aircraft programs are different from those of civilian transport aircraft. Improving capability in test technology thus becomes a challenge for IPTN's test pilots and engineers who are involved in those activities.

    In the aircraft structure technology, a third objective, IPTN's engineers are also challenged in their creativity. This is their first experience involving problems relating to increasing aircraft weight for military aircraft. Hence, they are faced with the problem of creating and designing stronger fail-safe aircraft structures.

    For a typical mission profile, the CN-235 MPA is also able to fly for more than seven hours of endurance. The standard operational ' equipment of the CN-235 MPA includes among others the INS to Provide continuous accurate position, navigation, guidance data and special mission. Its INS/VLF is fully automatic, computerized navigation system utilizing very low frequency radio signals. It additionally provides accurate positional information anywhere in the globe. And more, the CN-235 MPA is also equipped with tactical data link for over the horizon targeting. All modem mission and operation equipment installed on the CN-235 MPA make it an all weather, effective maritime patrol aircraft.

    TYPICAL DIRECT OPERATING COST CN-235-100
    Assumptions
    1.Aircraft Price:US$ 10,000,000.00
    2.Aircraft Utility:180 FH/year
    3.Depreciation Period:10 years
    4.Residual Value of Aircraft:10 %
    5.Rate of Insurance:1. 5 9o'@ of Aircraft Price
    6.Crew Salary

    Pilot Salary:US$ 2000.00/month

    Co-pilot Salary:US$ 1500.00/month
    7.Maximum Crew Utilisation:1050 FH/year
    8.Fuel Price:US$ 1. l/gallon
    9.Average Fuel Consumption:420 kg/hour
    10.Oil Cost:2.5 % of Fuel Cost
    11.Maintenance Cost

    Part & Material:US$ 80.00/FH

    Engine & Propeller Reserve:US$ 90.00/FH

    Main Hour Cost:US$ 25.00/FH
    Direct Operating Cost Break-down
    1.Fuel Cost & Oil Cost:US$ 146.01/FH
    2.Maintenance Cost:US$ 195.00/FH
    3.Crew Cost:US$ 40.00/FH
    4.Depreciation Cost:US$ 500.OOIFH
    5.Insurance Cost:US$ 83.33/FH
    Direct Operating Cost:US$ 964.34/FH


    ADVANTAGES GAINED AND LEARNING EXPERIENCE

    The joint design, development, certification and production of CN-235 by CASA and IPTN, which have taken place between two nations with culturally, socially and economically different settings can be regarded as one impressive and successful cooperation. Both countries have tangible and intangible advantages drawn from this cooperation. In 1976, when IPTN was established, it has less than 500 personnel. Now 16 years later, IPTN has about 15,000 employees and 1,700 university graduate engineers capable of carrying out modification, testing and qualification of any aircraft product. As an example, IPTN had successfully conducted the qualification of NBELL-412 into arms carrying aircraft and. at present is carrying out development program to convert CN-235 into a maritime patrol type aircraft. Presently IPTN is also manufacturing under contract components of Boeing 737 and Boeing 767. At the end of the second phase of the industrial transformation period, IPTN engineers and technicians have acquired many experiences from the design, manufacturing, testing, certification and marketing CN-235 aircraft into competitive market. Meanwhile, all the necessary support infrastructures that were started to be built early in the second phase, such as aerospace research and testing facilities at Serpong are capable of providing effective services by the end of the second phase. Institute of Technology Bandung, from which many of IPTN and BPP Teknologi engineers graduated, has also enhanced its capability and quality. The Directorate of Aircraft Certification has now been established within the Directorate General of Air Communication and is working on Bilateral Aircraft Agreement with FAA.

    Based on this experience and the technology gained from this co-operation taking place during the second phase, IPTN has been embarking on a regional 50 passenger aircraft N-250, which was initiated in 1987 and has already made its first debut in Le Bourget Air-show in June 1989. Within the framework of industrial transformation, N-250 program for Indonesia constitute the manifestation of the third phase.

    The N-250 aircraft is a twin turboprop high wing commuter aircraft having unique STOL capability. Unlike CN-235, the design technique utilised for this aircraft is employing as much computer graphics as possible and integrated to its production techniques using CAD/CAM interactive program. Several advanced technology items will be introduced, such as the use of composite materials, advanced cockpit including flat panels and flight management system, etc. A new feature that will also be used is the employment of Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) that will significantly reduce the pilot work load. In addition, advance six blade propeller to reduce acoustic level and fly by wire system will also be utilised.

    For Spain, the co-operation with Indonesia, which began with C-212 program and finally with CN-235 program has develop the facilities and manufacturing capabilities that in turn increased the market penetration of Spanish aircraft products, particularly for civilian application. The increase of market penetration has resulted in better company organisation and management. Experiences gained from the co-operation established with Indonesia has allowed the establishment of similar international co-operation in aircraft technology with other nations. To cite a specific example, experiences gained in the co-operation with Indonesia have been of great advantage in establishing co-operation with Turky for the licensed production of CN-235.

    AS a result of carrying out CN-235 program, CASA now possesses sophisticated and advanced design, manufacturing and testing facilities. Several innovative ideas arising from this co-operation can be implemented successfully by CASA in the development and improvement of the company.

    Finally, the co-operation that was initiated in the field of aircraft technology has now improved co-operative and trade relationship between Spain and Indonesia, such as in primary commodities and tourism.

    CONCLUDING REMARKS

    To arrive at the present achievement, it is realised that intensive preparations have to take place. The Government should be committed to a systematic and socio-economical as well as culturally suitable industrial transformation strategy. Mandatory infra-structural elements contributing to industrial transformation should be developed concurrently in appropriate phases with the industrial transformation vehicles proper. This means the requirements of a mature vision and far reaching development concepts and programs, experienced and co-operative key persons sharing common development objectives, as well as the support and development of bureaucratic elements. Aircraft technology as one of the most attractive advanced technology has been chosen as spearhead in the industrial transformation process due to domestic market potential attributed to the geographical and socio-cultural heritage as well as due to its technological sophistication that are essential and generic to other technologies. It is also realised that the industrial transformation process will take advantage of the manpower resources available, which in turn will develop improved quality and productivity.

    The, industrial transformation process which will bring Indonesia to a well developed and modem nation depends upon a number of basic and infra-structural needs, and development strategy to fulfill those needs. In this conjunction, several requirements have to be met. First, education and training in various fields of science and technology relevant to nation building should be

    accelerated, Second, a clear, realistic and consistently applied concept of the nature of the society to be developed and the technologies needed for its realisation must be evolved. Third, technologies can only be transferred, adapted and further developed through application to concrete problems. Fourth, in order to develop self reliance, it is vital the that the country solves the problem independently. At some point, technologies have to be developed endogenously. Fifth, encouragement and appropriate protection conducive to the development of national technological capability should be rendered until the ability to compete in the international market is achieved.

    In conclusion, the spirit of international co-operation afforded in the CN-235 program to a large extent has indeed transformed Indonesia from an agriculturally based into an industrially based society capable of producing modern and viable commuter aircraft in the world market, and enhancing the international market penetration of Spanish products. The spirit of co-operation which has endured various obstacles have resulted in national confidence of each partner, and we believe will lead to broader co-operation with other international partners and in more sophisticated technologies required in this globalisation era.


    ***


    Biodata
    BJ.Habibie & E. de Guzman

    * Prof. Dr. Ing., former President of Republic Indonesia, Vice President of Republic Indonesia, Minister of Research and Technology/Chairman, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology/Chairman, National Research Council/Chairman, Agency for the Strategic Industries and Chief Executive Officer and President, PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara.
    ** Former Chief Executive Officer and President, Construccions Aeronauticas SA.

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